At all times and in all countries has always met a lot of fans in the game of cards spread.This is a great way to pass the time with friends, and even a good idea to earn extra money, if engaged in the game professionally.Though, probably, few players thought seriously about the history of a deck of cards.But this story is fascinating and paradoxical, however, than the history of any other thing created by human civilization.In the words of a French priest, Claude Francois Menestre: "Maps are not only a means of entertainment, but also symbolize the social and political system, with its kings, queens and vassals" .First Russian as part of the International Society for the playing card collectors stavropolets Evgeny Grigorenko - one of those peoplewho once was curious to look into "rationing" of the past.It turned out that the literature on this subject is not enough.And Grigorenko himself had become a kind of historian, especially as a collector and then faced with instances that constitute undeniable h
widely known is the fact that "the sun of Russian poetry" Alexander Pushkin was an inveterate gambler.Grigorenko decided to clarify for themselves what exactly the poet played cards.It turned out to Pushkin-player dedicated for three books, but that in the cards picked up Alexander - a collector of information in these books is not found.But recently his collection there are three decks of cards the beginning of the XIX century.It seems now safe to say that something like this certainly enjoyed himself Pushkin.Now these are presented in the Museum of the deck of playing cards in Peterhof - the only museum in Russia dedicated to this subject.Maps Pushkin's time for the first time exhibited in Russia.
Earlier this deck could be seen except in one of the many American catalogs.These cards are manufactured in 1820-1830 years - quite rare instances.Thus, the efforts of the individual museum was replenished most valuable examples of graphics card.
Ten years ago Grigorenko was the Stavropol market and saw a grandfather sells mounted washbasins.By some whim collector I looked into one of them and saw the hidden cards there.It became clear at the dealer from where they are, and it turned out that his grandfather, a veteran of World, at one time was in German captivity, and the card - German, lost by one of the "Fritz-players" and hoarded by Soviet soldiers.Then cardboard chetyrehugolnichki altered to the "Russian style" - signed in ink "woman", "Diamonds" - where there were not a lady and not a jack, three fixed at six, and so on.
Apparently, originally consisted of a deck of 52 cards, but over time some of them were lost, and that's had to "modify" them, so that they were suitable for the game.Although a special historical value, such as Pushkin's time cards, "fascist" card not present, but have a colorful past.
is believed that the birthplace of playing cards - East Asia.Korean residents playing cards already in the XII century.But first of them is mentioned in the X century - when the Chinese adapted the paper for the other domino games.It is clear that such rarities could not "live" in the course of centuries.But the map of the XV century came to us through the Bible ... publications.The fact is that then - due to the very unstable materials from which they are made - quickly wiped deck and thrown away.In addition, these cards often originally produced poor quality.So, defective sheets with the image maps (and in fact they were called prayer trait!) In the XV century, glue binding the Bible - so valuable books "was driven" through the centuries and "unaccounted for passengers", and maps of the XV century - indeed miraculously - kept a brand new!
Death of textiles
was a time when maps were made on Russian manufactures - companies where used manual labor workers.The production process was very complicated decks - 119 steps!- And insecure - as you know, in the manufactories had no labor protection, and accidents occur there almost every day.But this state all proceeds from the sale of cards to start up a charity (and revenues were considerable, because in a single deck gave three rubles - the same cost eight kilograms of meat).
where they came in RUSSIA?
Few people know that the famous Johann Gutenberg, the inventor of the printing press, began with the production of maps and only then started to produce books.It was then that the dense pieces of paper with painted icons on them and took their place in our everyday lives.One of the most entertaining issues related to Russian history cards - exactly when and where they have appeared.According to Evgeny Grigorenko, is that here the mass of the white spots.Researchers generally attribute this event to the end of XVI - the beginning of XVII century.However, there is still no single point of view on it, from which countries the card came to us.There are several hypotheses: some believe that Western Europe through the Czech Republic, as it was the Czechs before all other Slavic peoples acquainted with the card game
others argue that directly from Germany, the third - through Poland.
first mention: FUN FOR ALL NOT
There is an assumption that the earliest mention of the maps found in the Code of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich - "the Code" in 1649.Gambling on the vault equated to serious crimes and severely punished.Apparently, the king saw the same Alex is a hidden evil.Perhaps he had a good reason - such games are often accompanied by bad company, drunkenness, debauchery, fights and even murders.In the "Code" has a chapter "On the robbery and Tatin (in the sense of thieves, predatory) affairs", and where it is written: "And who the thieves to Moscow, and in the cities of stealing, maps and grain (ie, bone) play ... the thieves repairs decree is the same as written above about this tatah ".The punishment was tough enough - gamblers whipped, cut off the left ear, and then imprisoned for two years, and after all these tortures were sent in chains to the heavy work.The punishment was enhanced for the capture of the player for the second time, the third ... If a person is incorrigible and caught a fourth time, then executed him.
SOVIET UNION: Decline
Different periods of experienced production of cards in Russia, but in the USSR there was not much variety here.Evgeny Grigorenko himself began collecting cards about 20 years ago.
Playing Card Museum in Peterhof - The Soviet Union produces only two kinds of cards - satin and preferansnye.As they say, especially will not clear.Although it printed a lot of them - 20-25 million packs a year.Looks like Soviet citizens were not against to play casually parteyku - other, although the official gambling in the USSR were not encouraged.Moreover, the circulation of cards circulation exceeded then ... the whole political literature.However, besides the two main types of cards, the above-mentioned, the Soviet Union produced in small quantities card souvenir - dedicated any date, age and so on.For example, the 150th anniversary of Combine color printing - factories, which engaged in the production of playing cards, special decks were released under the name "Black Palekh".The author - artist P. Bazhenov.Very nice card.
book about it
And so personal experience and the information was typed so much that Evgeny Grigorenko occurred to publish the book.It will be mainly devoted to playing cards Moscow Russia - that is unexplored and least known period in the history of Russian card.Sources little, for the most part they are archived.Something on the subject I found in the Moscow archives of ancient documents.I even had to learn palaeography - the science of old texts - to read the shorthand of the XVIII century.
history of everyday life
Recently, growing interest in the history of our Motherland, and not only to the social but also the so-called history of everyday life, to the way people lived before us, which have been the mood, emotions, reasoningtaste ... to understand all this, we can through the everyday objects - fans, snuff, handkerchiefs, ballroom shoes, playing cards (which, incidentally, are also used for divination, unfolding solitaire tricks and demonstrations).
And certainly something new about the history of everyday life interesting to know not only collectors.