Platinum, gold and diamonds .South Africa

City Rustenburg is situated in the Transvaal, about 80 km.west of Pretoria, the nation's capital.Kimberly is located in the south-west, about 450 km, in the Orange Free State.Both cities are easily accessible by road or rail from Pretoria.If we talk about minerals, South Africa - one of the most generously gifted by nature countries.She - a world-renowned supplier of gold, platinum and diamonds - the country produces them in enormous quantities.

These fossils are formed when red-hot magma intrudes into the crust by a series of shocks, creating a layered intrusive rocks.The composition varies slightly from layer to layer as long as they remain primarily elements which, for the most part, are not found among minerals in igneous rock-forming chamber.These elements and minerals are usually rare and most valuable.She lived in the Transvaal the Merensky contains, in particular, platinum.Movement of the Earth and erosion have raised this layer now to the surface, where it is convenient to develop.The thicknes

s of the wires of 1 m -2, but it stretches for 240 km, at least.Lived Merensky developed by Rustenburg Platinum Mine Group, the largest supplier of platinum in the world, producing up to 28 tons of metal a year.

Gold, as well as many other minerals found in veins, especially where copper is mined.In truth, the development of certain copper mines profitable only because there is mined gold in the amount of by-product, enough to mine is not ruined.However, most of the South African zoota found in alluvial deposits.This deposition of clastic material formed in the process of destruction and redeposition of rocks, some of which contain gold-bearing veins.The fine particles of gold, much heavier than any grains of rock, naturally concentrated in the deposits that made the metal production is relatively simple.

Diamond Mine in Kimberley is particularly picturesque.Initial mine is located within the city and is now preserved as a museum.The local name of the mine - Big Hole.That's how it looks: this is the greatest man-made hole in the ground, dug in the rock called kimberlite, and the former is likely to crater of the volcano from 70 to 130 million years ago.Such volcanoes are very rare throughout the world known only to very few.Source of volcanic rock located at least 97 km.beneath the surface of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are high enough to create a diamond, the hardest substance of natural origin.

along the edge of the Big Hole to build a platform from which visitors can look around 400 m. Deep into the "hole" and see its bottom, which are further down the shaft to a depth of 1.2 km.shaft dimensions are 1.6 km circumference, it covers an area of ​​15 hectares.During its existence it is 14.5 million carats of diamonds were mined.In the area of ​​South Africa it was also found most of the famous diamond.