Peter - the capital of Edom, or Idumea, later the capital of the Nabataean kingdom, the main city of the sons of Esau.The city is located in Jordan, at an altitude of 900 meters above sea level and 660 meters above the surrounding terrain, Arava Valley, the narrow Siq.Pass into the valley through the gorge, in the north and the south, while the east and west cliffs vertically break off, forming a natural wall of 60 meters in height.
It is in this wonderful historic town of filming the famous film "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade", and July 7, 2007 Peter was one of the new Seven Wonders of the World.
Peter located at the crossroads of two important trade routes: one connected the Red Sea with Damascus, the other - the Persian Gulf with Gaza near the Mediterranean coast.Dispatched from the Persian Gulf caravans with spices weeks had to bravely endure the rigors of the Arabian Desert, until they reached the cool of the narrow Siq, leading to a long-awaited Peter.There travelers find food, shelter an
annually the level of rainfall in Petra is only about 15 centimeters.To get water locals cut down canals and ponds in the rocks.Over time, almost every drop of rain in Petra and its surroundings is collected and stored.Thanks to the water, which the inhabitants of Petra expertly maintained, they could grow crops and breed camels.In addition, they were able to build a city - a center of trade.Until now, all over the Siq along the winding stone channels water flows.
Hundreds of years of trade brought great wealth Peter.But when the Romans opened sea routes to the East, the overland spice trade has come to naught, and Peter gradually empty, lost in the sands.Many buildings of Petra were erected at different times and at different host city, among whom were the Edomites (18-2 centuries BC...), The Nabateans (2 BC -.. 106 BC.).Romans (106-395 gg. BC. e.), Byzantines and Arabs.In the 12th century BC.e.they owned the Crusaders.The first European to modern times Peter saw and described traveled incognito Swiss Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.Next to the ancient theater where you can see the building of the era of the Edomites and Nabataeans.Monument is erected after the 6 century BC.e.there is little, because at that time the city has lost its significance.
Residents Petra expertly mastered the art of working with stone.The name "Peter", which means "rock", due to the stone.Nabataeans who built the city, carved houses, tombs and temples of stone blocks.The famous rock temple-mausoleum of Al Khazneh, "Pharaoh's Treasure", as the Arabs call it, was created in the II.- Possibly in connection with a visit to Syria by the Emperor Hadrian.The exact purpose of the construction is not fully elucidated.
Petra occupies a large area.From the center, where well-preserved ruins of many buildings, not rock, and lined up in the traditional way, made of stone, it stretches for several kilometers.Main Street, stretching from east to west through the city, was built in the days of Roman rule.On both sides of it stretches a magnificent colonnade.The western end of the street ended at a large temple and ended in the eastern three-span triumphal arch.Ed-Deir, carved into the rock on the cliff-top monastery -. A huge building width of 50 m and a height of more than 45 m From the carved crosses on the walls, a temple for a time served as a Christian church.
Today, about half a million tourists visit Jordan every year, to see Peter, buildings which testify to its glorious past.When tourists pass through the Siq cool kilometer long, around the corner it opens Treasury - a majestic building with a facade carved out of a huge rock.This is one of the best preserved buildings of the first century.The building is crowned by a huge urn of stone, which supposedly stored gold and precious stones.Canyon has gradually expanded, and tourists come in the natural amphitheater of sandstone walls in which many caves.But the thing that catches the eye - it is carved into the rock tombs.Colonnade and amphitheater indicate the presence of the Romans in the city in the first and second centuries.