Dante Alighieri

Dante was born in the middle of May 1265 in Florence.His parents were respectable citizens modest means and belonged to the Guelph party, which opposed the power of the German emperors in Italy.They were able to pay for her son in school, and later allowed him, without worrying about the tools to cultivate the art of versification.

As a poet, Dante begins with the most influential role models while lyrical poet of Italy Gvittone d`Aretstso, but soon changes the poetry and, along with his older friend Guido Cavalcanti became the founder of a special school of poetry, Dante himself called the school "sweet new style" (Dolce nuovo style).Its main distinguishing feature - the ultimate spiritualization of love feelings.

In 1292 Dante's autobiographical novel in verse and prose "New Life» (La vita nuova) was written, which tells of the love of Dante for Beatrice (it is believed that it was Beatrice, daughter of Folco Portinari) since the first meeting, when Dante wasnine years old, and she was eight and to

Beatrice's death in June 1290g.The poems are accompanied by a prose inserts explaining how there was a particular poem.In this work, Dante develops the theory of courtly love to a woman, reconciling it with the Christian love for God.After the death of Beatrice, Dante turned to the consolation of philosophy and created several allegorical poems in praise of this new "Ladies".

In the years 1295-1296 Dante several times called upon the public service, including participation in the Council of One Hundred, was in charge of the financial affairs of the Florentine republic.

In 1300, Dante travels as ambassador to San Gimignano with an appeal to the citizens of the city to join with Florence against Pope Boniface VIII.In the same year, Dante was elected member of the government council of priors - Dante takes the post from 15 June to 15 August.Fulfilling her, he tries to prevent the aggravation of the struggle between the parties, the White Guelphs (pro-independence Florence from the Pope) and Black (supporters of papal authority).

Around this time Dante marry Gemma Donati, whose clan owns the black Guelphs.

in 1301 - from April to September, Dante re-enters the Council of One Hundred.In the autumn of the same year he is a member of the embassy sent to Pope Boniface in connection with the attack on Florence Prince Charles of Valois.In his absence, November 1, 1301, with the arrival of Karl, the power in the city goes to black Guelph and the white Guelphs are repressed.

January 27, 1302 Dante's sympathy is on the side of the white Guelph, sentenced to exile and deprived of civil rights.More he did not return to Florence.

In the years 1304-1308 was created treatise "Feast» (Il convivio), written by Dante's own words to express himself as a poet, who went on chanting the courtly love of philosophical topics."Feast" is conceived as a kind of encyclopedia of philosophy and art, designed for a wide range of readers.

name "Feast" allegorical: simply and clearly set out the scientific ideas must satisfy not elected, but all.It was assumed that the "Feast" will include fourteen poems (canzone), each of which is equipped with extensive glossa, pushing its allegorical and philosophical significance.However, writing to the interpretation of three canzone, Dante leaves the work on the treatise.In the first book "Feast" serves as a prologue, he strongly defends the right of the Italian language be the language of literature.

Dante also working on a treatise in Latin, "On the national rhetoric» (De vulgari eloquentia, 1304-1307), which was not finished: Dante only wrote the first book and the second part.In it Dante speaks about the Italian language as a means of poetic expression, presents his theory of language and hopes to establish in Italy a new literary language, which would have stood over dialectal differences and would be worthy of being called great poetry.

In 1307 Dante began to write "Divine Comedy", interrupting work on the treatise "Feast" and "On the national eloquence."His poem describes Dante's "Comedy", because it has a dark beginning (Hell) and joyful end (Paradise and the contemplation of the divine essence).In addition, the poem is written in simple style (in contrast to the lofty style inherent in the understanding of Dante's tragedy), in the vernacular, "what women say."The epithet "divine" in the title is not invented by Dante, he prefaced his "Comedy" Boccaccio, expressed admiration for the beauty of artistic creation, and the first time it appears in the publication, which appeared in 1555.in Venice.

poem consists of one hundred songs about the same length (130-150 lines) and is divided into three slips - "Hell", "Purgatory" and "Paradise", thirty three songs each;The first song "Hell" is a prologue to the entire poem.The size of the "Divine Comedy" - odinnadtsatislozhnik, rhyme scheme, terza rima, invented by Dante, to invest in it deeper meaning.

«The Divine Comedy" - a consummate example of art as a role model, a model of Dante takes all things, both material and spiritual, the triune God created things, to impose on all the imprint of his trinity.Therefore, based on the structure of the poem is the number three, and an amazing symmetry of its structure is rooted in the imitation of the measure and the order which the Lord has given all things.

Although the story "Comedy" is almost always can hold only one literal sense, it is not the only level of perception.Following the medieval tradition, Dante puts into his work four meanings: the literal, allegorical, moral and anagogically (mystical).The first of these involves the "natural" description of the underworld with all its attributes.The second point involves the expression of the idea of ​​being in an abstract form it: everything in the world is moving from darkness to light, from suffering to joy, from error to truth, from bad to good.

can be considered the main idea of ​​the ascent of the soul through knowledge of the world.Moral sense suggests the idea of ​​retribution for all earthly things in life after death.Anagogically sense suggests the comprehension of divine ideas through poetry itself the perception of beauty, as a language, too divine, although the created mind of the poet, the man of the earth.

In 1310, Emperor Henry VII invades Italy with "peacekeeping" purposes.In the event of Dante, who found the time to a temporary shelter in the Casentino, responds passionate letter "To the rulers and people of Italy," calling for support of Henry.In another letter, entitled "Florentine Dante Alighieri, unjustly exiled, unfit Florentines who remained in the city", he condemns the resistance exerted Florence emperor.

In the years 1312-1313 wrote a treatise-study "On Monarchy» (De monarchia).Here, in the three books of Dante seeks to prove the truth of the following statements:

1) only under the rule of a single monarch universal humanity can come to a peaceful existence and fulfill his destiny;

2) The Lord has chosen the Roman people, that he ruled the world (hence, this monarch to be the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire);

3) the Emperor and the Pope receive power directly from God (and therefore not subject to the first two).

These views were expressed to Dante, but he brings to their ardor beliefs.Church immediately condemned the treatise and says the book to be burned.

in 1313 after an unsuccessful three-year campaign, Henry VII died suddenly in Buonconvento.And in 1314, after the death of Pope Clement V in France, Dante speaks with yet another letter addressed to the Italian conclave of cardinals in the city of Carpentras, which encourages them to elect a pope of Italian and return the papacy from Avignon to Rome.

For some time, Dante finds refuge with the ruler Kan Verona Grande della Scala, which devotes the final part of the "Divine Comedy" - "Paradise".

last years of his life the poet carries out under the auspices of Guido da Polenta in Ravenna.

the past two years living Dante wrote in Latin hexameters two eclogues.It was a response to professor of poetry the University of Bologna, Giovanni del Virgilio, who urged him to write in Latin and to come to Bologna for the crowning with a laurel wreath.The study "The issue of water and the earth» (Questio de aqua et terra), dedicated to the caller a lot of debate on the ratio of the water and land on the surface of the Earth, Dante may have publicly read in Verona.eleven recognized Letters Dante authentic, all in Latin (some mentioned).

September 13, 1321 Dante died in Ravenna, completed shortly before his death, "Divine Comedy."