Alexander Scriabin - the great Russian composer and pianist.In Russia his music heard their present, their future begins to see ... His contemporaries thought he had gone too early, throwing them on the path that he himself purposed without completing his plans before reaching the goal.His life is really short, but it is a life of genius, and then the usual measurements are not suitable.Music Scriabin distinctive and deeply poetic.In her dazzling triumph and Crystal lyrics, sophisticated artistry and rush to the light, joy and happiness.
Alexander Scriabin was born in Moscow on January 6, 1872 in the family of a diplomat, early lost his mother, and his training took over native aunt Lyubov Scriabin, which gave him his first music lessons.She remembered that from infancy he was drawn to the piano sounds.And in the three years already spent hours at the piano.For piano boy treated as a living being.He himself was making their childhood - the little toy pianos ... Anton Rubinstein, Scriabin once who taugh
When he was ten years old, his family tradition gave to the Moscow Cadet Corps in Lefortovo.At the same time in parallel, and began his musical studies in the regular classroom teacher famous Moscow Conservatory N.S.Zvereva, which at that time had already studied Sergei Rachmaninoff.
The two boys were the glory of Russian music, although their admirers will raise composers on different sides of the barricades, dubbed Rachmaninoff archaic and traditionalist, and Scriabin - a pioneer, a discoverer of new ways.Even the composers no longer communicate.It's only in textbooks geniuses of the past live as one big happy family ...
Music Scriabin began composing early - at seven years old, he wrote his first opera, calling it a girl's name, which was then in love.In early youth, his favorite composer - Chopin, and later - Beethoven.He studied composition at the Art S.I.Taneeva, and graduated from the Moscow Conservatory in 1892 for piano, received a small gold medal.
At age 19, Alexander felt a great sense of love.His choice was a fifteen year old Natasha Sekerina.In his proposal, he was rejected, but the feeling experienced by her, stayed with him for a lifetime and never again.
Scriabin begins early and successful tour.The first trip abroad - Berlin, Dresden, Lucerne, Genoa.Then Paris.Reviewers, as well as the audience, are favorable to it."He - all impulse and the sacred flame", - writes one."It opens the game in his subtle and peculiar charm of the Slavs - the first pianist in the world" - says another.
parallel Scriabin wrote a lot, and his works are immediately included in the repertoire of other pianists.In 1897 he completed his famous Second Sonata (there will be 10) and the Concerto for piano and orchestra.In the same year he married V.I.Isakovich, brilliant pianist, is also a graduate of the Moscow Conservatory.They have long been familiar, they have common interests, but marriage will be unsuccessful, and after seven years will end break.
Ended XIX century and along with it - the old way of life.Many, like another genius of the era Alexander Blok, a presentiment "unprecedented changes, unprecedented riots" - that is, social and historical turmoil of the storm, which will bring the twentieth century st.One strikes the teachings brought in Russia from the East, from India, the other - in the home mysticism, and others - in the symbolism, the fourth - in the revolutionary romanticism, fifth ... It seems that never before in a single generation not born so much in different fields inart.Scriabin also remained true to himself."Art should be festive, - he said - should raise must charm."
But in fact, his music was so new and unusual, so impertinent, that, for example, his performance of the Second Symphony in Moscow on March 21, 1903 has become a downright scandal.The views of the public is divided: one half of the audience whistled, booed and stamped, and the other, standing near the stage, applauded."Cacophony" - such a terrible word symphony called master and teacher N.S.Rimsky-Korsakov, and after him and dozens of other musical authorities.
But Scriabin was not at all embarrassed.He already felt himself the messiah, the herald of a new religion.This religion was the art for him.He believed in his transforming power, he believed in the creative personality, capable of creating a new and wonderful world.He thought then fashionable planetary scale."I'm going to tell them, - he wrote in those years - that they have ... nothing to expect from life, in addition, that in itself can create ... I'm going to tell them what to grieve about, that there is no loss.that they were not afraid of despair, which alone can give rise to a real triumph. strong and powerful person who has experienced frustration and beat him. "
At this scale sorrows of life as it samoutrachivalis.
Under the influence of the militant optimism Scriabin wrote in 1903 his famous 4th Sonata for piano, in which the state transferred to uncontrollable flight alluring star pours streams of light.This is also the Third Symphony, the composer called "Divine Poem" (1904).Having overcome the tragedy of life, man becomes God equality - and then opens before him triumphant beauty of the world.
The memories of Scriabin there is an episode where he had lived with his second wife in 1905-1906 in the Italian town of Bogliasco.Not once in walks around the neighborhood accompanied him was in exile Plekhanov Russian philosopher, a propagandist of Marxism.At that time, Scriabin wrote his "Poem of Ecstasy" and his belief in the limitless possibilities of the human creator has reached extreme forms.In one of the trips, going to a high stone bridge over a dried-up riverbed, Scriabin suddenly said to his companion: "I can jump off this bridge and not to fall on his head stones, and hang in the air by the force of will ...".Philosopher listened carefully to Scriabin and calmly said, "Try it, Alexander ...".Try Scriabin did not dare.
But near the grandiose, like, transpersonal and superhuman, in the music of Scriabin sounded tender and intimate.It was the finest lyric poetry delicate feelings and moods, their whimsical fickle nuances, poetry of longing and languor, anxiety and convulsive search.
Scriabin writes a lot, it publish, perform, but he lives on the brink of need, and the desire to improve their material things again and again drives it through towns and villages.The tour in the US, in Paris, in Brussels."Poem of Ecstasy" triumphal march across the European capitals, and Scriabin have a fever for a new job - he wrote his "Prometheus" ( "Poem of Fire", 1910).
"Prometheus" is considered to be the central image of the music of Scriabin - because the titanium, for no obvious reasons stolen from the gods of Olympus with fire and gave it to the people, so was like Scriabin's creator.To fulfill his musical extravaganza composer needed to expand the orchestra include choir, piano, and, moreover, to enter into the score-note row, indicated by a color support, for which he invented a special keyboard ... This was the first time in the history of music, although some, albeitconditional connection of musical sound and color established by the ancient Greeks.
premiere of a new symphonic work has become a major event in Russian musical life.It was March 9, 1911 in St. Petersburg in the hall of the Noble Assembly, the one which is now owned by the St. Petersburg State Philharmonic.He conducted the famous Koussevitzky.Over the piano was the author himself.
success was huge.A week later, "Prometheus" was repeated in Moscow, and then sounded in Berlin, Amsterdam, London, New York.Lighting special - it was called the invention of Scriabin - then fascinated many, here and there to construct new light-projection devices, promising new horizons for synthetic sound-color art.
Nowadays, however, the color, the music phenomenon is so common that no one pays attention to him, besides, as it turned out, the color, and even with the smoke, it is best to turn pop songs but dancing in the style of "disco".But while many were skeptical about innovations Scriabin - the same Rachmaninoff, who once, examining the piano in the presence of Scriabin's "Prometheus", said not without irony, a color here.Scriabin was offended ...
This fragile, short stature man hatched titanic ideas and distinguished by an extraordinary capacity for work, had, in spite of a certain arrogance, a rare charm that attracted people to him.Won over by his simplicity, childlike, open credulity of his soul.
were with him and their little eccentricities - for many years, fingers stroking his nose, thinking that in this way to get rid of pug.He was a hypochondriac, feared all sorts of infections and the street without gloves did not come out, not picked up money for a cup of tea warned not to have raised with drying cloths that fell from the plate - on the tablecloth could be microbes ...
From contemporary composersit seems, he was not interested in anyone.Of those who came before him, he called only two or three names.Himself unobtrusively fancied Messiah, considering that its main work ahead.Impressed by the still not deciphered philosophy of HP Blavatsky, then captured the imagination of many, Scriabin wrote a kind of "Mystery", which was open to all humankind.For seven days, the period for which God created the earthly world, as a result of this action people were reincarnated as some new joyful essence, attached to the eternal beauty.
Scriabin dreamed of a new synthetic genre, which will merge not only the sounds and colors, but also the smells and dance plastic."But how awful great job, how awful it is great!"- He exclaimed with concern.Perhaps he was standing on the threshold, step over which nobody has been able ...
strange and what seems to be composed by "Mystery" was never recorded.Preserved only musical extracts from the so-called "Preliminary Steps" to the "Mystery".
April 27, 1915 in the prime of life and talent Scriabin died of a general blood poisoning.He was forty-three years.Within five years before and after it died a few geniuses of patient-generation Russian: middle-aged Vrubel and block thirty-six Čiurlionis.
... Trifle, an abscess on his upper lip, an infection that Scriabin was so afraid.Strange death as a punishment for pride, for an attempt to beat the Creator.Does not he remember how Prometheus treated with the gods of Olympus?