Ancient Greece gave mankind the three great tragedians - Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides.Euripides last and the youngest in their series.By the time it arrives already approved the work of Aeschylus tragedy, as a leading literary genre.Mocker Aristophanes said that Aeschylus' first of the Greeks piled stately speech and introduced the beautiful sensation tragic speech. "Euripides tragedy facilitated language modernized it, closer to the spoken language, because, apparently, he was more popular among future generations, rather than at his accustomed to, "says the stately."
Home creativity Euripides had a period of higher prosperity of the Athenian state, headed the union of many small countries and islands of the Aegean archipelago under the rule of Pericles in 445-430 years BC, and the second half of his life coincided with the beginning crisis at the time of the Peloponnesian War(431- 404 BC), when the democratic Athens collided with another powerful union - oligarchic Sparta.The hatred of the Athe
The "Age of Pericles' Athens became the main cultural center of the Greek world, attracts creative people from all its ends.It was promoted and Pericles himself, extremely educated man for his time, a fine orator, a talented commander, subtle politician.When it rebuilt Athens, the Parthenon was built, a great sculptor Phidias was led by construction and adorned the temple of his sculptural works.Long lived in Athens historian Herodotus, the philosopher Anaxagoras, the sophist Protagoras (which belongs to the famous formula, "Man is the measure of all things").While Hippocrates began to create medicine, Democritus and Antiphon developed a mathematical science, rhetoric bloomed ...
Athens called "school of Greece", "Hellas Hellas".Not surprisingly, the patriotic enthusiasm is reflected in many works of art of the time, among them were particularly marked by patriotic feeling of the tragedy by Euripides - "Heracleidae", "petitioner", "Phoenician."
ancient "Lives" Euripides claim that he was born on the day of victory in the battle of Salamis (where the Greek fleet defeated the Persians) in 480 BCon the island of Salamis.In this battle was Aeschylus, Sophocles and sixteen performed in the choir boys, glorifying his victory.It was presented by Greek chroniclers continuity of the three great tragedians - too beautiful to be true."Parian Chronicle" refers to the date of birth of Euripides 484 BC, that the researchers seem more authentic.
In "Lives," says that Euripides was the son of a shopkeeper Mnesarchus and vegetables traders Clito.And these data, scientists have questioned because they are taken from the comedy of Aristophanes ( "Women on holiday Thesmophoria"), known for his attacks on the tragedian.Aristophanes and hinted on his descent from a simple low zelenschitsy, and his wife's infidelity, and so on. D.
According to other sources, which are considered more reliable, Euripides descended from a noble family, and even served at the temple of Apollo Zoster.He received an excellent education, has one of the richest libraries of its time, was a friend of the philosophers Anaxagoras and Archelaus, sophists Protagoras and Prodicus.This is more like it - for scientists excess arguments in his tragedies of Euripides' contemporaries called "philosopher on the stage."It confirms the latest version of the curriculum and the Roman writer Aulus Gellius in the "Attic Nights", which says that Euripides had the means and learned from Protagoras and Anaxagoras.
Euripides describe closed, gloomy man inclined to solitude, plus everything else, and misogynist.Gloom and he is depicted on the surviving portraits.If the shift characteristics of the ancient language of Euripides to our concepts, we can say that he was extremely ambitious (though, this is one of the conditions for creativity), acutely sensitive and touchy person.Can we consider it a misogynist seems unlikely (and not without Aristophanes).Even the "demonic" Medea Euripides lets say the word, many centuries anticipating Nekrasov theme "female dolyushki»
Yes, between those who think and breathe,
We, women, are no unhappy.For men and
We pay dearly.And buy,
So he'll master and not a slave.
And the first second mount more.
And most importantly - take random because it denigrates
il be honest, how do you know
And meanwhile go away - you disgrace Well,
and remove the spouse you do not dare.
reasons for the dismal state of mind in Euripides enough.His works have rarely enjoyed success with his contemporaries.In the competition of poets, made in ancient Greece, Euripides won only three times (and two after death - for the tragedy "The Bacchae" and "Iphigenia in Aulis" set by his son).For the first time his tragedy ( "Peliady") appeared on the scene in 455 BC, but the first victory he scored only 441 m.For example, Sophocles came out winners in eighteen times.
Euripides maintained proximity with outstanding minds of his time, welcomed all the innovations in the field of religion, philosophy and science, for which he was attacked moderate social circles.Expression of their views is the Attic comedy, the most prominent representative of which was a contemporary of Aristophanes tragedian.In his comedies he satirized and social views, and artistic techniques, and personal life of Euripides.
Perhaps these circumstances is due to the fact that in his later years, in 408 BC, Euripides has accepted the invitation of the Macedonian king Archelaus and moved to Macedonia.There he wrote the tragedy "Archelaus" in honor of the patron saint of his ancestor, as well as "The Bacchae" - under the influence of the local cult of Dionysus.In Macedonia, he died in 406 BCEven his death was surrounded by rumors and gossip.According to one version, he was allegedly mauled by dogs, on the other - women.Here we hear the echoes of the same comedy of Aristophanes' Women at the festival Thesmophoria ".According to her story a woman angry with Euripides, because it removes them too ugly in his tragedies, conspiring to kill him.In the comedy lynching did not take place, but "graced" the biography of a tragedian.
Euripides tragedy belong to 90 of which are extant 18. The chronology of their appearance on the stage of the researchers determined about "Alcestis" (438 BC), "Medea" (431) "Heracleidae" (430 th), "Hippolytus" (428), "Cyclops", "Hecuba", "Hercules", "petitioner" (424-418), "Trojan Women" (415) "Electra" (about 413), "Ion", "Iphigenia in Tauris "," Elena "(about 412)," Andromache "and" Phoenician "(about 411 th)," Orestes "(408)" The Bacchae "and" Iphigenia at Aulis "(405).
Plots for his tragedies, like his predecessors, Euripides drew from the tales of the Trojan and Theban cycles, Attic legends, myths about the Argonauts, labors of Hercules, and the fate of his descendants.However, unlike Aeschylus and Sophocles, he has quite a different understanding of myth.He walked away from the tradition of the sublime, and became the standard images depict mythological characters as the people of the earth - with all its passions, contradictions and errors.
Euripides developed new principles of human image, showing the psychological motives of actions, rather than typologically provided, as it was before the hero arrives heroically, villain - brutally.He first managed to introduce a psychological drama where struggles, confusion of feelings the characters are transmitted to the audience and cause sympathy, rather than simply the condemnation or admiration.Perhaps most clearly expressed in the tragedy "Medea".
At the heart of "Medea" - the story of the myth of the Argonauts.Jason got the Golden Fleece in Colchis by a daughter of the king Colchian sorceress Medea.Personality bright, strong, uncompromising, she leaves his home under the influence of passion for Jason, betrayed his father, he kills his brother, condemns himself to intolerable existence in a foreign country, where her daughter is infamous as the "barbaric" people.Meanwhile, Jason and owe her life, and the throne.When he leaves Medea to marry the heir to the Corinthian king Glaucus, resentment and jealousy are so blind Medea, she conceives the most terrible revenge - the murder of their children.
Torments of Medea, in a frenzy of rushing between maternal feelings and vengeful impulse power, so terrible, that inadvertently cause sympathy.Here the tragedy, rock in its purest form - Medea doomed, she has no way out.She can not go home and can not stay in Corinth, where Jason casts its view of the new marriage.I'm not sure it is in the future of their children, even if you leave them with my father, because they are for the Greeks - the children "barbarian."And Medea decides
So I swear as I
Hades and all underground force,
What can not see the enemy of my children, of Left
Medea to mockery ...
«Medea", a tragedy unparalleled in world literature, has not yet beenleaving the stage.
Glory came to Euripides, alas, after his death.His contemporaries failed to appreciate it.The exception was the only island of Sicily.The ancient Greek historian Plutarch in his "Comparative biography" tells the story of how the individual Athenian soldiers captive and enslaved during a failure of the Sicilian campaign, managed to escape to their homeland "... saved some Euripides.
fact that Sicilians, probably more than any of the Greeks living outside Attica, revered talent Euripides ... It is said that at that time many of safely returned home, warmly welcomed by Euripides, and told him how they got freedom by teachinghost what is left in the memory of his poems, or wandering after the battle, earn their own food and water singing songs from his tragedies.There is, therefore, nothing improbable in the story that in Kaunos some vessel at first was not allowed to take refuge in the harbor of pirates, and then let him, when, after inquiries made sure that the sailors had memorized the verses of Euripides "(" Nicias and Crassus").
century later tragedies of Euripides began to enjoy great success and in his homeland, while Aeschylus and Sophocles began to lose popularity.Later, the tragedies of Euripides repeatedly addressed the Roman playwrights.For example, "Medea" processed Ennius, Ovid, Seneca.In the era of the classical Euripides influenced Corneille ( "Medea"), Racine ( "Phaedra", "Andromache", "Iphigenia", "Thebaid, or brothers-enemies").Voltaire based on his tragedies wrote "Merope" and "Orestes."Schiller based on "Finikiyanok" Euripides created the "Bride of Messina".
In Russia, interest in Euripides originated a long time - known "Andromache" PACatenin, as well as numerous translations.One of the best interpreters of Euripides Innocent Ann wrote several imitations, using subjects not extant tragedies.
Gloomy Euripides, so once suffered because of his rare victories in competitions of poets, won a major victory - over time, and to this day adorn his tragedy theater scene.