«We read too many trivial booklets - Goethe said - they rob us of time and absolutely nothing we are not allowed.Actually, should be read only what we admire.As a young man I never did, and now the thought of this while reading Sir Walter Scott ... going straight to read all of his best novels.They are all great - the material, the plot, the characters, the presentation, not to mention the infinite diligence in the preparation of the novel and the great truth of every detail.Yes, here we see what English history and what it means when a genuine writer she gets an inheritance. "These words of Goethe, Eckermann recorded, could belong to many other masters who expressed no less admiring attitude towards the great Scot.
True, Balzac claimed that he lacked the full majesty of passion "Walter Scott ... I do not want to take the passion, the divine emanation, standing above virtues, man-to save the social order, and brought it to the sacrifice of their homeland bluestocking".But this reveals a discrepancy bet
Is not passion for the Middle Ages forced Walter Scott so get used to the image that he has built himself on the banks of the Tweed on old drawings Gothic castle Abbotsford and the medieval-style decorated it outside family crest, and inside - portraits of Scottish kings and their noble ancestors inmostly created by the imagination.Lifestyle in the castle was also close to the medieval, and Walter Scott, not without reason called Abbotsford "dwelling, like a dream."He dreamed of becoming the founder of a noble family, and it became them.In 1820 he was granted the right to be called "Sir Walter Scott Abbotsford, baronet," what he considered the greatest reward.
Walter Scott - one of those rare writers who have a form of the historical novel does not hesitate to artistic images.Deep connoisseur of "medieval antiquities," and besides, the greatest artist, he knew, more than anyone, to revive the event, the time covered with dust.
Walter Scott was born on August 15, 1771 in Edinburgh, Scotland's cultural center.His pedigree writer quite impressively presented in his autobiographical essay "I was not born in a blaze, but not in nothingness.In accordance with the conventions of the country of my origin is my considered noble, as paternal, and maternal, too, I was bound by kinship, though distant, with old families.
father's grandfather was Sir Walter Scott, whose well-known in Tiviota valley nicknamed "The Beard".He was the second son of Sir Walter Scott, the first Lord (large landowner -. LK) Rayburn, and that in turn - the third son of William Scott and grandson of Sir Walter Scott, called in the family tradition "Old Watt" - host Harden.So, I'm a direct descendant of this ancient leader, whose name was made in many of my verses, and his beautiful wife, the Flower of Yarrow - not a bad pedigree for the minstrel of the Border Region ".
you need some explanation.Border region - an area in the south of Britain, where Scotland is bordered by the English counties.ancestors of Sir Walter Scott lived there himself.Great-grandfather of the writer called "beard" because of their vow not to shave until until in 1688 the deposed Stuarts not return to the throne.
Father Walter Scott, the first in the family got a profession, receiving education lawyer, became a royal solicitor and went into the privileged class of the Scottish lawyers.He was gentle, hard-working person and is so conscientious that he did not managed to make a fortune, having a rich clientele.Walter's mother was the daughter of a professor of medicine at Edinburgh University, John Rutherford, who was one of the first to introduce in the training workshops in the clinic.
half years old Walter Scott struck ailment that left him lame for life.Biographers suggest that it was the infantile paralysis.In the hope of healing the country air was sent to the child's paternal grandfather in Sandy Nou, where it had a farm.There Walter Scott for the first time, in his words, "consciously accepted the existence".
boy tried to treat all sorts of folk ways, what he later humorously recalled "Among the notable funds with which me is from lameness, some have advised that whenever in the house will cut the sheep, I golem swaddled in justshot, still warm skin.I remember well how this infidel vestments I lie on the floor of the small living room of the farmhouse, and grandfather, gray-haired and venerable old man embarks on all sorts of tricks in order to make me crawl. "My grandfather died when his grandson was not even four years old, but incredibly tenacious memory of a child restrained impressions of those years.
heard in Sandy Know lyrics, as well as the horror stories of atrocities committed over the Jacobites, among whom were relatives of the Scots, after the suppression of uprisings (1715 and 1745) in support of the son and grandson of the last monarch of the House of Stuart of James II (hence the name of Jacobites), awakened in him "a very strong disposition to the house of Stuart" and "does not hate children" to their enemies.So Walter Scott went on "you" with a history of in the early childhood.
After school, in twelve years, he entered the University of Edinburgh in the legal department.Visiting Edinburgh library ( "I was thrown into this great read ocean without a helmsman and without a compass" - recalled Scott), the future writer was there I first saw Robert Burns, and later had the opportunity to listen to the famous poet in the house of his friend Adam, the son of the philosopher Adam Ferguson.
In 1785, due to illness, Walter interrupted classes at the university.After his recovery, his father took him to his office and often sent on business customers in the border counties.Scott visited the places associated with the Jacobite uprisings, listened to the stories of old Scotland, became acquainted with folk customs, traditions, collecting antiques (later it will become a passionate antiquarian).By this time his fascination with German Romantic poetry.
Returning to the university, in 1792, Walter Scott passed the exam for the title of lawyer, and in the summer of next year, along with Adam Ferguson made a trip to Scotland, "the outback", looking at the ruins of feudal castles, ancient graveyards.But this is hardly a novice novelist planned forays into the heroic past of their country."He then turned himself in the present, but, apparently, realized that's what, in a few years.And at first, I dare say, it was his one concern so fun "- recalled his contemporary Robert Shortreed.
His literary career Walter Scott began as a poet.His first publication in 1796, became a romantic poem translation of the German poet Gottfried Burger's "Lenore".Yes, and the translator experienced while romantic first attack, threatening to go to the tragedy.Walter Scott was in love.His passionate feelings aroused Villaminaya Velshes, daughter of Sir John Stuart Velshesa, Mr. sensible enough to give his daughter's hand to man without certain future.Despite the sympathy for the novice poet, Villaminaya obeyed his father and soon married the wealthy and not yet old banker.
Walter Friends had serious reason to fear that he might not interfere with the grief.So Balzac vain incriminate his English fellow writers in excessive equanimity.Love fever, however, soon passed, and a year later married Walter Scott safely, but the memory of Villaminaya haunted him all his life.Her features are researchers in the form of Green Mantilla from the novel "Redgontlet", she also devoted many lines in the "Diary" of the writer, which he began to lead in the last years of his life.
wife of Sir Walter Scott in 1797 was the Frenchwoman Charlotte Charpentier, daughter of Master of the Horse Lyon Military Academy.In London and her brother in 1784 brought his mother, and in a few years, leaving children in the care of the Lord Downshire, he returned to France and died there shortly.Charlotte grew up in the Lord's family.Biographers until the end and not unraveled the mysterious history.Some biographies of Sir Walter Scott Madame Charpentier represent a Frenchwoman-royalist, had fled with her children in England from the Revolution.The nature of her relationship with Lord Downshire also remained a mystery, but it was Sir Walter Scott asked him to obtain consent to the marriage with Charlotte.
Many years later, Scott wrote Lady Eyberkorn, which consisted of an intimate correspondence, in response to her question whether he was ever truly in love: - "We are with Mrs. Scott were married by mutual consent, driven by the most sinceremutual sympathy, and she not only weakened living together for twelve years, but rather strengthened.Of course, it lacked the love of selfless fervor, which, I think, the man fated to experience only one and only time in his life.Whoever, swimming, almost went down, rarely dare to meddle again in the deep water. "Charlotte was not beautiful, but it has a light, cheerful disposition and enough ambition to strongly support all the literary beginnings of her husband.
In 1799, Walter Scott published a translation of Goethe's drama "Götz von Berlichingen", and soon his first original work - romantic ballad "Ivanov Evening" (1800), known here in Zhukovsky translated as "Smalgolm Castle."
Even in his youth, Walter Scott began collecting Scottish folk songs, they made two volumes which he published in 1802 under the title "Songs of the Scottish border," and a year later released a third volume."Last Minstrel's Song" (1805) Left then the poem by Sir Walter Scott, "Marmion" (1808), "Lady of the Lake" (1810), "Rokeby" (1813), dedicated to the Middle Ages - ancient castles, Scottish landscapes, hunting scenes, fabulousadventure - had extraordinary success and made his name famous.
In 1808, Walter Scott traveled to London, where, according to the memoirs, "were worn as a written sack and zalaskat ... almost to death" with him.He was named the first poet of England (at the beginning of the XVIII century Scotland lost independence and became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain), and in 1813 was offered a position of poet laureate.It was however honorable and lucrative position as court poet, whose job was writing poems on special occasions in the life of the royal house.Scott refused this honor in favor of Southey.
At the peak of his poetic fame Walter Scott suddenly left the poetry and in 1813 began to write novels.Many years later, when asked why he did not return more to poetic creativity, Scott said, "Long ago I stopped writing poetry.Once I won a victory in this art, and I do not want to wait for the time when I was here surpass others.Reason told me to roll up the sail to the genius of Byron. "
unprecedented case when sober novelist won the rapture of the poet.It is tempting, of course, to write off such an act at the age when "the summer to the harsh prose of the Clones" - Scott at the time, "knocked" forty-two years, but in the writer's life there were many other noble gesture, reminiscent of the chivalrous spirit of his beloved Middle Ages.
For the remaining eighteen years Scott has written 28 novels, several short stories and novels.Every day, he rose at dawn and sat down at a desk with a punctuality of celestial bodies to spend five or six hours for him.
first prose work of Walter Scott "Waverley, or sixty years ago" (1814) opened the series of novels on the history of Scotland - the so-called "Ueverleevsky cycle."In the "General advance notice 'to it, Scott wrote," I itself occurred to the ancient tradition and noble spirit of the people who live in a civilized century and the state, but retains so much of the customs and traditions inherent to society in its early days of existence,should serve as a fertile subject for a novel, if not come by saying the story is good, but the narrator is bad. "
narrator was more than good.The best novels "Ueverleevskogo cycle" are still popular.Almost every year was marked by the appearance of a masterpiece, or even two (among other novels), "Guy Mannering" (1815), "Antiquaries" (1816), "The Puritans" (1816), "Rob Roy" (1818) and others.
historical past of England came to life in such novels as "Ivanhoe" (1820), "The Monastery" (1820), "The Abbot" (1820), "Kenilworth" (1821), "Woodstock" (1826).In "Quentin Durward" (1823) describes the events taking place in France during the reign of Louis XI.
In 1817, Walter Scott wrote to one of his friends, "I bought a good farm, adjacent to the Abbotsford and superbly located, so now I'm a big Laird, and Walter (his son -. LK) can become more wealthy and, ifbe cautious and prudent. "
where Walter Scott built his Gothic castle "Abbotsford", but did not have time to enjoy its medieval luxury.Although he went to prose, but remained a poet, and therefore man rush, far from prudence.
Glory brought him huge profits.Wishing to strengthen the future of his children, he decided to become a partner publishing company that produces his books.In 1826 the company went bankrupt, and the writer had written off the debt of 117 thousand pounds.Royal Bank offered him help, but scrupulous Walter Scott refused.One of the friends tried to give him a loan amount that is sufficient to settle the case with the creditors, to which he replied, "I will help my right hand!" And from that time he worked like crazy, producing novel after novel.Five years later, having survived several strokes, September 21, 1832, Walter Scott died.
reading the memories of him, you will notice that he was admired not only as a writer, he sincerely loved as a person.