First World War gave mankind a number of unexpected inventions unrelated to the military industry.Today we remember only some of them, firmly entered into the everyday life and radically change our lifestyle.
1. Sanitary napkins
history that has long become a familiar household items for women connected with the appearance tsellyukotona or cellulose wadding - material with a very high degree of absorption.And it began to produce before the start of the First World War, a small specialists while the US company Kimberly-Clark.
Head of Research Department, Ernst Mahler, as well as the company's vice president Kimberly James toured in 1914, pulp and paper mills in Germany, Austria and the Scandinavian countries.There they noticed a material that absorbs moisture up to five times faster and costing producers in two times cheaper than cotton.
Kimberley and Mahler brought with them samples of cellulose wadding in America, where he registered a new trademark.When entered into the First World War, Kimberly-
However, the Red Cross nurse, bandaging the wounded and to assess the new dressing for dignity, began to use it in a different capacity.This misuse of tsellyukotona and became the basis for the prosperity of the company.
"After the war, in 1918 the production of dressings had to be suspended because the main consumers - the army and the Red Cross - more do not need them," - says the current representatives of the company.
Almost a hundred years ago, enterprising businessmen Kimberly-Clark bought the remnants of cellulose wadding in the military and created a new product and new market.After two years of intensive research, experiments and marketing, the company produced a sanitary napkin 40 of the thinnest layers of cellulose wadding, wrapped in gauze.
In 1920, in a small wooden shed in the village of Nina, Wisconsin, mass production pads were launched, which were made of female workers of the enterprise by hand.The new product dubbed Kotex (short for cotton texture / cotton texture).On the shelves, he entered in October 1920, after about two years after the signing of the armistice agreement.
2. ... and paper handkerchiefs
advertising sanitary napkins was not so easy, because to speak out about the menstrual cycle, then it is simply indecent, besides women hesitate to buy them from merchants-men.
Company reached an agreement with pharmacies which sold pads of the brand, stand at the box office two boxes.From one woman took the package with the pads, the other would put 50 cents at the cash register if these boxes are not observed, it could just say the word "Koteks".It sounded like a password, and the seller immediately realized that it is necessary.
new product gradually gaining popularity, but not as fast as we would like Kimberly-Clark.We had to find a new use for the wonderful material.In the early 1920s one of the company's employees - Bert Furness - the idea arose to refine the pulp under the hot iron, making the surface smooth and soft.In 1924, after a series of experiments on light there were facial tissues, which called Kleenex.
3. The quartz lamp
winter of 1918 about half of all children suffered from rickets in Berlin, one of the symptoms of which are bone deformation.While the causes of this disease are unknown.We suggest that it has something to do with poverty.
Berlin physician Kurt Guldchinsky noticed that many of his patients suffering from rickets, were very pale, without tanning.He decided to conduct an experiment on four patients, including a three year old boy.All that is known about the child, that is what his name was Arthur.
Kurt Guldchinsky became irradiate this group of patients with ultraviolet rays from a mercury-quartz lamps.After several sessions, the doctor found that the skeletal system in children has become stronger.
In May 1919, with the onset of the summer season, he began to make children sunbathing.The results of his experiments have caused a great resonance.Across Germany, children have been put before the quartz lamps.Where the light is not enough, as in Dresden, for example, it went even lamps taken social workers with streetlights.
Later, scientists found that the UV lamps contribute to the production of vitamin D, which is actively involved in the synthesis and absorption of calcium by the body.Calcium, in turn, need to develop and strengthen bones, teeth, hair and nails.So the treatment of children suffering in the war years of malnutrition, leading to a very useful discovery of the benefits of UV rays.
translation arrows on the idea of an hour forward in the spring, and back one hour in the fall existed before the First World War.Benjamin Franklin stated it in a letter to the "Paris Journal" in 1784 yet."Because people do not go to bed with the sunset, it is necessary to exhaust waste candles, - the politician wrote -. But nothing is lost in the morning sunlight, as people wake up later than the sun rises."
Similar proposals have been made in New Zealand in 1895 and in Britain in 1909.However, they may be to no avail.The First World War contributed to the realization of this idea.
coal is lacking in Germany.April 30, 1916 that the authorities issued a decree according to which set their clocks from 23:00 pm to 24:00.The next morning, all we had to wake up, so an hour earlier hour daylight saving.
German experience pretty quickly migrated to other countries.In Britain, saving time passed May 21, 1916, it was followed by other European countries.March 19, 1918, the US Congress established several time zones and daylight saving time introduced from March 31 until the end of the First World War.
After the armistice summer was canceled, but the idea of saving daylight remained to wait for better times, and, as we know, those days are finally came.
5. Tea bags
tea bag does not owes its origin to the problems of war.It is believed that the first tea, packaged in small sachets, began sending its customers American tea trader in 1908.
Some of the fans of this drink dropped or dipped a teabag in a cup of boiling water, giving rise to a very convenient and rapid method for brewing tea.So, at least, say representatives of the tea business.
During the First World War the German company Teekanne remembered this idea and began to supply tea bags troops.The soldiers called them "tea bombs".
It is not true that the wristwatch was invented specifically for the military during World War II.However, reliably that during these years the number of men who wore wristwatches, increased many times over.
After the war wrist watches have become a familiar attribute by which checks the time.However, in the late XIX and early XX centuries all lived in affluence a man did it with the help of a pocket watch on a chain.Women in this respect were the pioneers - Queen Elizabeth I, for example, had a little watch that she could, if necessary, worn on the wrist.
But for the participants of the First World timing was becoming an increasingly important issue, especially when it was necessary to synchronize mass demonstrations or shelling.There were hours that leave both hands free a soldier, that is watches.They were comfortable and aviators.So solid pocket watch on a chain, it can be said, have sunk into oblivion.
During the Boer War the company Mappin and Webb made watches with ears, through which it was possible to pass through the strap.Later, the company proudly announced that its products have proved very useful in the battle of Omdurman - General battles of the Anglo-Sudan War.
But it was the First World War made watches everyday necessity.It was especially important to coordinate the actions of various departments during the creation of the artillery fire of the veil - that is, ground artillery fire before the performance of the infantry.An error in a few minutes could cost many lives of its own soldiers.
distances between the various positions were too big to use the signals in the time of their transfer was too small, and do it on the mind of the enemy would be unwise.So watch were the perfect way out.
Company H. Williamson, letting out the so-called trench watch in Coventry, wrote in his report for 1916: "We know that already one in four men has a wristwatch, and the remaining three will get them as soon as possible."
Some brands of watches, which have become a symbol of luxury and prestige, have their origin from the time of the First World War.Tank Model Cartier company were presented in 1917 by the French master Louis Cartier, which has been building these watches, inspired by the shape of new Renault tanks.
7. Vegetarian sausages
If you think that soy sausages were born somewhere in the mid-1960s in California due to some hippies, you're wrong.Soy sausage invented by Konrad Adenauer, the first Chancellor of post-war Germany.This food product has become a symbol of endurance and integrity - to say that the taste quality of sausages left much to be desired, it would be too cruel.
During the First World War, Adenauer was mayor of Cologne, whose people are starving because of the British blockade.Who had a keen mind and talent of the inventor Adenauer began to look for products that could replace in the diet of citizens bread and meat.
He started with the recipe of bread rolls, where instead of wheat flour used barley, rice and corn flour.It turned out quite edible, while Romania has not entered the war and supply corn flour does not come to an end.From the experimental bread Mayor moved to the experimental sausages.He suggested the use of soy instead of meat.His work became known as the "world's sausages" or "Cologne sausage."Adenauer decided to patent the recipe, but the Imperial Board of Patents refused him.
turns out that when it came to hot dogs and sausages, the German rules were very strict - to be called as such, these products had to contain meat.In short, there is no meat - no sausages.This may seem strange, but Adenauer more fortunate in this respect with the enemy in Germany: the British King George V granted him a patent for soy sausage June 26, 1918.
Adenauer later invented the "electric-rake brush to kill caterpillars", a device for removing dust generated by the car, the lamp for the toaster and much more.However, none of these developments have not been put into production.But the patented "Cologne sausage" with soy content made history.
Vegetarians around the world should raise a glass of bio-wine for a modest German Finance Minister, who created for them is an indispensable dish.
Since the middle of the XIX century, many people have tried to create a device that would help would be to combine the details of clothes and shoes the fastest and most convenient way.However, luck was American engineer Gideon Sundbeku, who emigrated to America from Sweden.He became chief designer at Universal Fastener Company company, where he invented the Hookless Fastener (buckle without hooks): slider-slider connected the teeth attached to the two textile tapes.Cundbek received a patent for his version of "lightning" in 1913.
US military began to use these lightning in uniform and shoes, especially in the Navy.After the First World War, the zipper moved into civilian clothes, where they continued good health to this day.
Stainless steel For steel that will not rust or corrode, we have to thank Harry Brearli from the English city of Sheffield.How to tell the documents from the City Archives, "in 1913 Brearli developed what is considered the first example of" stainless "or" clean "steel - a product that revolutionized the steel industry and has become a major component of the infrastructure of the modern world."
British military just puzzled over the fact of what metal is better to make a weapon.The problem was that the gun barrels at high temperatures and friction began to deform.Metallurg Brearli asked to create such an alloy that could withstand high temperatures, chemicals and so on.
Brearli began to conduct experiments testing the properties of various alloys, including high chromium content.According to legend, many of the experiments, in his opinion, ended in failure, and discarded ingots found themselves in a heap of scrap metal.However, later Brearli noticed that some of them did not respond to rust.Thus in 1913 godu Brearli opened secret stainless steel.
During the First World War from it produced new aircraft engines, but later began to make stainless steel spoons, knives and forks, as well as countless surgical instruments, without which no cost, is now no hospital in the world.
10. A communication system for
pilots Before World War I aviator turned out to be in the air one by one with the aircraft.He could not talk with any other pilots or with terrestrial services.At the beginning of the war the connection between army units carried out mainly by means of telegraph lines.Often, however, shelling tanks or disabling them.
Germans also managed to find the key to the British wire encryption.At that time, we used other methods of communication - messengers, flags, carrier pigeon, light signals or messengers on horseback, but each of them had their own shortcomings.Aviators had to do with shouts and gestures.This is nowhere would not do.We had to do something.The solution was the wireless connection.
Radio technology was then in its infancy.During the First World War, relevant studies were conducted in Bruklende and Biggin Hill, to the end of 1916 significant progress has been made."The first attempts to establish wireless phones on planes ended in failure, as the noise of the engine was creating a lot of noise," - says historian Keith Trouer in one of his books about the development of radio in Britain.
He said that later solved this problem by creating a helmet with built-in microphone and headphones.This civil aviation in the postwar years, "soared" to new heights, and the gestures and cries with which the aviators had to get in touch, gone.