The paradox of choice explains quantum mechanics

reason for which many of us do at times incomprehensible and defies logic choice in simple situations, even in a normal emotional state, can be explained by quantum mechanics.

Suppose that in an opaque container is 90 equal-sized balls, with red, black and yellow.We know that the red balls in the container exactly 30 pieces, and the remaining 60 balls - yellow and black, as they alone are unknown.

Now you must imagine that you are willing to bet that someone will be able to pull out a ball at random and it would be red (Option 1), or bet that the ball will be black (Option 2).Which version of the name you are willing to give preference to, wanting to win an argument?

In the second phase of the experiment in terms of winning the dispute, you make your choice that will be extracted red or yellow ball (third option) and, accordingly, the 4th option assumes that black or yellow ball will be removed.

About such matters asked the famous Belgian scientist Diederik Aerts nearly six dozen of their friends.Th

e responses were as follows: 34 people expressed a preference for 1 and 4th options;12 people chose 2 and 3rd option;7 people choose options 2 and 4th options and 6 people have made their choice in favor of the 1 and the 3 rd option.

The fact that most of the participants prefer 1 and 4th options beyond doubt scientist for the reason that in the 60-ies of the last century, when a similar problem the first time formulated and it became known as the paradox of Ellsberg, was received the sameresult.This situation looks rather strange on the grounds that, in accordance with the modern theory of decision-making, participants were required to make completely different choices.

According to this theory, a person must make decisions carefully evaluate the possibility of extracting the probability of each color of the ball, and only then to predict the odds of winning or losing in the proposal of solutions to the dispute.Carefully sort out the available alternatives, it is clear that there is almost no any reason to give preference to the first embodiment instead of the second or fourth embodiment, instead of the third.

Let us try to understand this situation.The probability that a red ball will be extracted is equal to 1/3.The probability of extracting a black or yellow ball completely uncertain.Classical theory does not allow to make the right decision in view of this uncertainty, just as we are unable to make the right decision, if formally always guided by the mathematical logic of events.

Yet most people quite deliberately favors to a particular situation.How is it possible with the help of ordinary logic to explain this choice?Perhaps in addressing this paradox can help the logic of the quantum world?

Scientists have repeatedly tried to use quantum description to solve the paradox, Ellsberg, and use it to connect a certain probability (extract a red ball) with an unknown probability (extract yellow or black ball).In this way and went Erts with colleagues, recreating the model of quantum logic chain pushes the person to make this decision, basing the theory of quantum probability.

model developed by scientists has led to the same results, which were obtained in the form of people's responses to the questions posed at the beginning of this article.According to the authors, the human mind at the same time allows you to combine probabilistic logic of both classical and quantum physics.It turns out that to create a full-fledged artificial intelligence need to learn how to combine the two, hitherto strictly alternative approaches.