HISTORY OF MASSAGE

Even in ancient times massage has been known as a therapeutic agent.Massage was used primitive people.Obviously, stroking, rubbing, kneading sore spot at first it was purely instinctive .It did in the earliest stages of the development of folk meditsiny.Ustanovleno that many centuries ago, massage was used as a remedy people living on the islands of the Pacific Ocean.

origin of the word "massage» does not have the same explanations for different specialists.Some believe that it comes from the Arabic «mass» or «masch» - «gently press, touch", while others - from the Greek «masso» - «compress hands", the third - from the Latin «massa» - «sticks to the fingers."But whatever the origin of the word, the essence of the massage is the same.

Since ancient times, massage is a part of the healing art.massage techniques first described the Indians and the Chinese.

China apply massage techniques began in the third millennium BC.There's massage done in the treatment of rheumatic pains, sprains, relieving fat

igue, muscle spasm and so on. At the same time, doing massage, Chinese rubbed his hands the whole body, gently squeezing the muscle and producing special twitching in joints.When twitching heard crackling.

In one of the medical treatises of ancient India , known as "Ayurveda", described in detail techniques of massage used by Indians in various diseases.The Indians produced kneading the entire body - from the upper limb to stop.The Indians first combined steam baths with massage.Doing massage in the bath on the hot iron plate pouring a certain amount of water, which evaporates and penetrates the skin.When the human body is quite moisturizing, massaged stretched on the floor, and two servants, one on each side, with different strength squeezed relaxed muscles of the limbs, and then massaged his stomach and chest.After the man turned over and did a massage on the back surface of the body.

As in India, and in China massage made priests.In addition, these countries have established schools that taught massage techniques.

In ancient China, laid the origins of Preventive Medicine.There almost all provinces of the medical-gymnastic schools were established, which were engaged in the training of doctors, perfectly owned techniques of massage and therapeutic exercises.

Did primitive massage and in the Americas and Africa .The natives in many diseases apply simple techniques of massage.

They used massage and in ancient Egypt, Abyssinia, Libya.He was known in those countries even 12 centuries BC.e.In Egypt, the massage techniques combined with the influence of the bath.no one comes out of the bath, do not suffer the massage.Steamed man rubbed, stretched, squeezed, pressed on all sorts of harmonies hands different parts of the body.Massaging all joints.Initially massaged person in front, then the back and sides.Separately, massaging hands of their bent, stretched different joints throughout the hand, then each finger individually, then move on to the forearm, shoulder, chest, back, bending them in different directions.In addition to bending, stretching and massage joints, used kneading and rubbing all other muscles.

Judging by the images, preserved on ancient bas-reliefs and some Egyptian papyri, we can conclude that the Assyrians, the Persians, the Egyptians were not only familiar with the techniques of massage, but also used massage for therapeutic purposes.From Egypt massage widespread in Ancient Greece, where, together with gymnastics took an important place in the art of treatment of diseases.Massage was one of the main elements of Greek medicine.Its use has been required.

The "Odyssey" of Homer tells how Circe in The Odyssey anoint bath oils and ointments rubbed it, and the women kneaded body of warriors before battles.Famous Greek physicians - Gerodikos, Hippocrates and others in his writings also described in detail the many techniques of massage.Massage in those days used to hygienic and medical purposes (in diseases of the joints and sprains).

Hippocrates (459-377 gg. BC. E.) Empirically tested all the theoretical position of the massage.In his writings, he wrote: "... the joint may be compressible and relaxing massage.Friction causes the contraction or relaxation of the tissues, leading to emaciation or fullness, dry and frequent friction pulls, and a soft, gentle and mild tissue thickens. "

Massage in ancient Greece took place in baths with oils and rubbing ointments.

In ancient Greece believed that massage should be used not only in medicine, but also in everyday life and sport and introduced it to the school and the army.There had special salons for skin care face and hands, which were conducted hygienic and cosmetic massages.

In ancient Rome, as his time in China and India, have been opened massage school.They were founded by Greek doctors - Asclepiades and his followers.Asklepiad shared massage and dry oils, strong and weak, short and long

Paracelsus recommended rubbing to remove deposits and edema

Galen set nine types of massage and described their technique.

The Roman baths (the baths) is also widely used massage - there are rooms specially designed for massage.They are slaves kneaded and rubbed swimmers body.Before the massage, the Romans were doing a series of gymnastic exercises.After that, the whole body massaged and rubbed with oil.Due to the Romans massage became a part of the system of military and physical training.

According to Plutarch, the great general of Rome, Gaius Julius Caesar used continuously massage, using specially trained slaves masseurs.Eastern medicine has reached the highest peak in the X-XI centuries.At this time, a lot of attention was paid to the development of new methods of treatment and prevention of various diseases.

very wide bath and massage is applied in Turkey and Persia .Oriental massage school differed from the school of ancient Greece and Rome.The difference lay in the fact that the Turks massed like the Egyptians and Africans: rubbed and pressed his fingers, triturated tissue.Massage is done in the baths in a separate dry and heated room.oriental massage specialists worked with his hands and feet, focusing on rubbing and movements of the joints.

In Ancient Rus used tempering treatments and massages.These included tapping, rubbing broom, active movement.The ancient Slavs, this form of massage called "hvoscheniem".This procedure was described in the chronicles.

Slavs in rheumatic pains and injuries joints rubbed and kneaded the muscles and other body parts.In this case they used a variety of rubbing an ointment prepared on the basis of herbs and roots.Vymyvshis, they moved in a highly heated steam room, and there slashed their attendant birch twigs, pre-steamed in hot water, then rubbed them, then sluiced its contents alternately several buckets of hot and cold water the whole body from head to toe.Heavy whipping broom can be compared with vigorous rubbing.Furthermore, broom and trituration was conducted scraping the whole body from top to bottom.This dual reception provides hardening, stimulates the skin and protects against disease when diving into the snow or ice water after a bath.

At a time when science flourished in the East, in Europe practically applied massage and exercise.At this time, the West prevailed the Middle Ages, dominated by the power of the church and its dogmas.The ideas of self-mortification and austerity could encourage expanded use of massage.Massage performed by various charlatans, while scientists engaged in alchemy, the search for the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life.

Only in the Renaissance became interested in gymnastics and massage.This happened in the XIV-XV centuries.after the appearance of the work on the anatomy Mondi de sea-bears.European doctors have begun to analyze and develop the work of doctors of ancient Greece and Rome.I began to arise some interest in medical gymnastics and massage.Books have been written about the baths and physical exercises of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

development of medical science in the Renaissance contributed to the Belgian anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 gg.), And the English physician William Harvey (1578-1657 gg.).Andreas Vesalius is considered to be the founder of anatomy as a science, since it is one of the first to describe many human organs.Harvey made a huge contribution in physiology, discovered and described the circulatory system.

famous Merkulius collected all the literature of the time for massage and gymnastics, and wrote the famous essay "The Art of Gymnastics", which revealed three types of grinding: weak, strong and mean.In addition, the author has supplied its publication illustrations and detailed guidelines.After the publication of the treatise Giovanni Borelli "Movement of animals" massage began to develop rapidly.It Borelli shows a physiological way of studying movement.

In 1780, there was work of the famous French clinician Clement Joseph Tissot "Medical and Surgical Gymnastics".In this work, he cites numerous details about how to effectively provide massage, used in gymnastics and surgery.He wrote that "the movement can often replace various medicines, but no medicine is no substitute for the movement."The most effective technique of massage he thought rubbing, recommending two ways: dry and wet.At the same time describe in detail the methodology of the techniques: "If every morning, lying in bed on his back and lifted slightly bent knees, rubbing his stomach and abdomen with a piece of flannel, then this increases peristaltic motion in the bowels of the abdominal cavity ... When rub allbody, promote blood circulation and evaporation.The ancients, who knew all the benefits of rubbing, used it not only as a doctor's remedy, but it was, so to speak, their everyday tool for health. "

methodical study of therapeutic massage given founder of the "Swedish" gymnastics system Henrik Ling (1776-1839 gg.).Promote massage he became after he was convinced of its effectiveness.Having been in the battle of the shoulder joint injury, complicated by a violation of hand mobility, Ling took up fencing, and began to consistently apply the massage.After a while, his hands function almost recovered.Inspired happened to him, Ling began to develop methods of gymnastics and massage.

After much research, he published a treatise "General principles of gymnastics," in which he wrote that "massage is an integral part of all kinds of movements, providing its beneficial effects on the human body."Ling is also attached great importance to massage the system of medical gymnastics.It is believed massage is very effective in combating fatigue, stressed its therapeutic effect in motor disorders resulting from injury, as well as surgical diseases and diseases of the internal organs.

Over time, massage and physiotherapy are being used on all continents.In the XIX century.France, Germany, England and other countries, there are numerous writings about the massage and the results of its use in the treatment of various diseases.This contributes to the development of sciences such as biology, anatomy, physiology.

Even in India and China, ancient Greece and Rome, massage was widely used in the system of physical training of soldiers, gladiators and pugilists.The Romans and Greeks were such types of massage, as a preliminary (performed before leaving the arena athlete), training, rehabilitation (for removing fatigue).