Indonesia.The island of Java .Borobudur

Borobudur - the largest Buddhist monument in the world, or rather not a monument, a stupa.In the world of this temple styled and the eighth wonder of the world, and a symphony of stone, and a hymn to the Buddha.

still not silenced debate about what can mean the word "Borobudur", and would not it be more correct to write it as "barobudur." Scientists have come to an agreement only in that it consists of two parts - "boroor bar "and" Boudour ".In one version of "bar" is derived from the Sanskrit word "vihara" which means the complex of temples and monasteries, and "Budur" recalls Balinese "beduhur", which means "at the top".Therefore, the name can be deciphered as "a complex of temples on the hill."According to another version the word "Borobudur" can be interpreted as the Sanskrit "bharabudda", that is "a lot of Buddhas".The third version is that "Bora" is the name of the area, and "Budur" - means "ancient."All together, therefore, translated as "Ancient Bora", but what kind of "Bora" so, no one knows.T

here are other, even more confusing and contradictory versions.However, leave the scientific debate and to meet scientists better acquainted with one of the largest Buddhist temples outside India and Cambodia.

Borobudur was built in the end of the VIII - the beginning of the IX.during the Shailendra dynasty of the Sumatran Srivijaya empire.The temple was built around a natural hill, overlaid with stone blocks, and has the form of a stepped pyramid with a base of 123 m. And about 32 meters high. And the original height from the bottom to the top of the head once crowned the temple spire exceed 40 meters.

Many pilgrims and tourists visit Borobudur, but still none of them managed to get inside the temple.The fact is that in reality it is not possible - because Borobudur has no interior space.It consists of a base, five rectangular lower and upper three concentric galleries facing the mountains located in the offing.With them, by the way, one of the legends linked to the establishment of Borobudur.It says that from time immemorial the island of Java floating on ocean waves.Local residents were very concerned about this, and so the island had nailed to the center of the earth, that he accidentally swam away somewhere.Gradually around the nail has formed a hill, and already around this hill was built Borobudur.The area around the nail has become known as Kedu Valley, its "frame" Mount Merapi and twin Marbabu the east and Sumbing and Sindor the northwest.The beauty of an active volcano Merapi, whose name and comes from the word "fire" (api), a truly overshadows everything.Over the pinnacle Merapi constantly hanging clouds of smoke, and in clear weather it is one of the most active volcanoes in the world is clearly seen right from Borobudur.If the top of the temple to look at the surrounding mountain range, it is possible to discern a giant like facial features of a person reclining on the mountain tops.According to legend, it is none other than the creator of Borobudur Gunadarma, whose name means "he did good."For many hundreds of years Gunadarma resting, protecting his creation, which he clearly embodied the teachings of the Buddha, designed to help a person get rid of earthly suffering.

Borobudur - is embodied in stone Buddhist philosophy, the original model of the universe.Nine temple tiers symbolize the stages that a person goes before you get rid of the vicious circle of life's suffering, to escape from the labyrinth of endless rebirths, purified and attain nirvana, that is absolute rest.It Kamadhatu - the sphere of desire, Rupadhatu - the sphere of bodily form and arupadhatu - celestial sphere, or the incorporeal.Buddhists believe that if a person was able to get out of this maze, after his death, the soul separates from the body, it is reincarnated thousands of times, and finally finds peace in nirvana.

Temple Grounds, now mortgaged stone slabs, is the lowest, level of sin, filled with pain and sensual desires.In one version of the reliefs 160 base containing sadistic and sexual scenes, they were closed due to their extreme obscenity.However, most scholars are of the opinion that the lower level had to be closed in order to strengthen the foundation of the temple, which gradually began to sink under its own weight.Who specifically for visitors removed several boards to give an opportunity to fully evaluate the plan of Borobudur creators.

Temple is focused on the four cardinal points, each side has its own entrance and staircase.However, traditionally considered to be the central entrance from the east, and from there begins the narrative embodied in the reliefs of the second level, the total length of more than five kilometers.These reliefs, characterized by strict, balanced composition and the associated single rhythm of storytelling, the glory and pride of the greatest Buddhist temple.Despite the fact that the reliefs of the second level of Borobudur tell of the life of the Buddha, on the stages of the development of Buddhism, the deeds of a person and their relationship to karma, according to which the position of man in this life depends on his behavior in past existences, this part of the temple could be called an encyclopediaJavanese life of VIII century.According to him the visitor can vividly imagine the daily life, customs, food, animals, vehicles, musical instruments of the Javanese, who lived thirteen centuries ago.Sometimes images are so documented, that can serve as a source of information for scientists.For example, on the basis of relief, telling travel Prince Hira, preached the philosophy of Buddhism, was able to really recreate the model of the ancient Javanese ship.

However, the higher rises the visitor, the more flat, graphical now become distracted and reliefs, as conceived by the founders for the soul gradually freed from all worldly things.The man who first goes like on the open top to the tunnel, on which the walls of two rows of endless stretch reliefs, arranged in two tiers, gradually as it leaves the earth and goes beyond to the open concentric terraces, symbolizing the celestial sphere - the third level of the temple.There are no other ornaments but symmetrically arranged figures of Buddha nestled laced caps in the form of large bells.Seventy-two cap concealing seventy-two statues, called stupas.Through latticed walls of stone Buddhas both visible and not visible, from which the sense of reality is gradually erased.According to the plan, it should symbolize the transition from the solid state to the out of body.Tradition says that if to touch the Buddha sitting in the lotus position inside the stupa, it is possible to find happiness and well-being.The most "effective" is considered to be a touch of the big toe or heel.

In earlier times, the total number of Buddha statues at the lower and upper galleries of the temple reached more than 500. But unfortunately, time and earthquakes have caused irreparable damage to the sanctuary.Last but not least, by the way, played and people - in the colonial period it worked closely hunters for antiques, and as a result many of the statues were stolen kidnapped to become an ornament of private collections in rich houses of Europe and America.

top of the temple is crowned by a fully closed stupa height of seven meters.Inside it is the latter, the largest Buddha statue, which can not be seen.With this statue tied another of the many mysteries of Borobudur, which is still controversial in the scientific community.The fact is that when the temple has been detected for the first time, a statue, which did not have a head, found lying on the floor.According to one version, the head broke off during an earthquake, once destroyed the temple, but he could not find her.This in itself is quite strange, because impressive size cast doubt on the possibility that it was someone taken away as happened with others, not such large statues.In another version of the statue originally it was not completed for some reason.And if you think so, then the final point in the construction of the temple was set only a few centuries after the start of construction, when, during the restoration of the central Buddha statue found at last, on the designated place to put it.

History Borobudur restoration began about 200 years ago, when in 1814 the Englishman T. Raffles, a representative of the colonial government in Java, found that close to Yogyakarta is a dilapidated stone hill, which is the ruins of an ancient temple.By this time the temple has been abandoned for several centuries.Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions filled it with earth and ashes, and lush tropical vegetation completed the deal entirely concealing from the eyes of Borobudur.On behalf of T. Raffles in 1815 began the excavations, the first period which ended in 1911.As a result of these works, however, the state of the church is not improved, but rather the contrary worsened since his stones have access not only to the tropical rains, and Relic Hunter.The porous andesite stone absorbs moisture like a sponge, groundwater cruelly tempted foundation of the temple, and vandals dragged the statues souvenirs.

second phase Borobudur restoration began in 1969, when restorers took the risk and dismantled the temple, to save it from destruction.The scope of work was enormous.All stones, statues, bas-reliefs copied, podshlifovali cleaned and then coated with a special protective solution and collected again.From scattered around 10 thousand stones were hewn and laid about 5000 new fragments substitute, marked with white paint.In total, for the restoration of the temple it took about 15 years, but the greatest creation of human genius managed to preserve for future generations.In many ways, the successful completion of the work contributed to technological progress.All information about weight, size, shape and every color of the stone, each plate coded and recorded in the computer and then accurately determine that where to put, and what kind of Buddha statue belongs to one or another head of littering at the foot of the temple (this is not a joke: before the beginning of the restoration of Borobudur 280 of 504 Buddha statues were headless).

During work it was estimated that the construction of the temple took 55 thousand cubic meters of stone.Unnamed builders who did not know of lime and cement, tightly stacked stone blocks, fastened together with a lock - connection protrusion of one stone to another notch.However, it was not possible until the end to unravel the mysteries of construction of Borobudur.It is still not found, for example, the quarry where the stone was mined and processed blocks of complex temple complex.

In the old days Kedu Valley, where the temple was considered sacred.Besides Borobudur there about the same time two other Buddhist temples were built - Medut, three kilometers away, and Pavon in half.All three of them are integrated.

Today the temple complex of Borobudur in Java attracts not only tourists, but also many Buddhist pilgrims.Located on the cool stones, people spontaneously forget about everyday worries and immerse yourself in.Peace and quiet.If they can dream, it is only on the terraces of the Borobudur - frozen forever stone giant.Of course, to soak up the energy emanating from the temple of peace, we must adjust ourselves to the appropriate way.However, it observed that even the most energetic visitors gradually settle down on the ancient slabs, and there is silence.She stiffened shrouded in the thick centuries and fixing his eyes on all four sides of the world stone Buddha.