Properties and mystery stones .The most famous diamonds

Guy Pliny the Elder in his "Natural History" emphasizes extraordinary value and rarity of the diamond: - "The greatest price between human things, not only between gems, is a diamond that for a long time only the kings, and it is very little,It was known ".Istoriya most famous diamonds is passed from generation to generation.These stones are overgrown secret, rumors, they are credited with extraordinary properties and the ability to work wonders.

the biggest diamond - "Cullinan", named after the owner of the South African mine "Premier" was found in 1905 and weighed 3106 carats with dimensions of 5-6.5 - 10 cm Two years later, the diamond was presented to King Edward VII.For birthday.

In "Kullinane" were cracked, and therefore from it was impossible to make one huge diamond.The treatment is best entrusted diamond cutter Joseph Asker, who split the stone in two large monolithic, seven medium, and about a hundred small fragments.In their subsequent faceting it took two years, and the work was completed

in 1912.

two biggest diamond - Teardrop "Cullinan I», or "Star of Africa", weighing 530 carats and "Cullinan II of" having close to a rectangle shape, weighing 317 carats - is a treasure of the English crown.

At the same mine in 1919 was found diamonds weighing 1,500 carats, and in 1954 - another major diamond good as an earthing 426 carats, which was called "The Snow Queen" and from which produced three diamonds.The largest of them was sold for $ 2 million.

South African mine "Prime" in our time are stones up 100-200 carats, the value of which is to cut more than $ 4,000 per carat.Not far from the mine in 1934, the large diamonds weighing 726 carats was found, called "Jonker".Because it was made of 12 diamonds in a total weight of 370.9 carats.

On the other South African mine, "Jagersfontein" in 1893 and 1895.stones, called "Excelsior" had been found and "Jubilee."Mass of the first - 971.5 carats.This stone was made 21 diamond total weight of 374 carats.From diamond "Jubilee", in its raw form vesivshego 651 carats, turned eponymous diamond of 245 carats, which ranks third among the largest diamond of the world,

Large diamonds were found in the fields "Kimberli" and adjacent to them, "De Beers".Currently, these stones are known as "De Beers" (428.5 carats), "Porter-Rode" (150 carats) and dark yellow diamond "Tiffeni" (128.5 carats).

Brazilian diamond is best known for "President Vargas" at 726.6 carats (the largest), discovered in 1938, he will make 28 diamonds, of which half in weight from 10 to 48 carats.

One of the most beautiful diamonds in the world is called the "Southern Star".It is made of diamond, found in 1853 in the Brazilian province of Minas Gerais slave-girl-Negro.The unprocessed stone weighed 254 carats and was soon sold for 900,000 francs.Grind it the same cutter, under whose leadership the British Queen Victoria made a re-cut of the famous "Koinura".Brilliant "Southern Star" weighs 125 carats.

well known stories "Koinur" diamonds ( "Mountain of Light") and "Regent" (or "Pitt"), which are the most ancient among the famous stones.

According to ancient Indian legend, the story of "Koinur" diamond begins with the legendary hero Vikramaditya in 56 BC.The first documentary evidence available in the notes of the king Babur (1483-1530), which states that in 1304 the sultan Aladdin Khila took tricked the stone king of Malwa.

After about 200 years in India invaded Kabul King Babur, Humayun and his son found in the fort of Agra set of jewelry, including "Koinur".Later Prince fled to Persia and brought with him the stone which gave the Shah of Persia.That, in turn, in 1547 presented "Koinur" Burhan from Ahmednagar in India.In a hundred years the stone back in its place in Delhi.

At the beginning of the XVIII century.Nadir Shah of Persia invaded India and captured Delhi.Sultan Muhamad Gurkhan wanted to buy off the invaders securities offerings, but "Koinur" hidden in his turban.Nadir Shah found out about it and offered him a "sign of friendship" to swap hats, thus becoming the owner of the diamond.According to another legend, there was a diamond in the crown of Muhammad gurkhan, during peace negotiations Nadir Shah saw the stone and said: "Mountain of Light" (in Persian - "Koinur").Then a cunning Shah proposed change crowns.Since then, the stone, and was called "Koinurom".

In 1747, Nadir Shah own guards killed, and his general Abdali with a stone and fled to Afghanistan in Kabul, went up on the throne.Afghan Shah Shuja, in whose hands later, was the diamond, even under the threat of being blinded did not want to specify the location where the hidden stone.Only after being tortured, already blinded, he pointed to a cache.

In 1813 the diamond was returned to India, and Lahore king Raj Singh put it into a bracelet that fits all occasions and kept among the crown jewels.After the death of the king's own "Koinura" was a young Rajah Dalla Singh.

In 1849 seized Lahore colonial troops of the East India Company.Dalla Singh signed a contract in which he renounced the throne, and from the "Koinura".Soon, stone was presented to Queen Victoria of the British, who wanted to change the facet of the diamond.

In 1852, in consultation from the famous jeweler, the Queen personally beginning to polish a diamond.As a result of the huge stone of 186 carats turned polished diamonds of 106 carats, which caused widespread disappointment.In 1911, "Koinur" inserted into a small royal crown for the Queen Mary, grandmother of the current Queen Mother Elizabeth II.

Diamond "Regent" found in 1701 in one of the mines of India.The unprocessed amount of stones is 410 carats.He found his servant, who decided to bring a stone from the mine.He inflicted the wound himself and hid the diamond in a sling.He himself was not able to sell the stone, and conspired with a sailor.He decided to take possession of the diamond, and sinking a slave, who found a jewel sold stone English Governor Pitt 20 000 DM.The sailor was soon squandered the money and hanged himself, and Pitt sold the diamond for 2.5 million francs, the French regent Duke of Orleans, then the stone was named "Regent".

When cutting the diamond, which lasted two years, lost 2 stone / e of its original mass, and in the faceted form weighed 137 carats.Ready diamond was valued at 12 million francs.Fragments obtained by treatment, have been sold for a large sum.

In 1792, the stone was stolen, but quickly found, and then the French Republic in Berlin laid the diamond jeweler.Later, Emperor Napoleon I bought it and wore to the hilt of his sword.In the middle of the XIX century.French government sold the diamond at auction.Now this diamond is in the Louvre.

Among the oldest concerns diamond, which is called by three names - "Florentine", "Grand Duke of Tuscany" and "Austrian diamond."This stone was found in India in the XIV century.Massa faceted diamond of 137 carats.The stone belonged to the Duke of Sforza, then Pope Julius II of, the diamond was presented to the Austrian emperor.

About a stone called "Sancy" long been known for the legend, according to which the diamond belonged to Charles the Bold - Duke of Burgundy, and in 1477, when the Duke was killed in the Battle of Nancy, took possession of the stone soldiers.The soldier sold it for one guilder, and bought his pastor then sold three.

French scientist Bernard shattered this legend, having ascertained that the diamond appeared in Europe only in 1570. Its first owner was Nikola Arles, Senor de Sancy.Entanglement stories diamond "Sancy" because Senor de Sancy simultaneously acquired another rock, similar to the first in quality, shape, and even the type of cut.He was named "Small Sancy" ( "A perfect Sancy").The dimensions of this crystal - 22.4 x 19.5 x 11 mm, weight - 35 carats."Great Sancy" has a pear shape, size 25,7h20,6h14,3 mm

weight - 55.2 carats.

exceptional purity of the stones indicates their Indian origin, also made the cut in Europe.Document found that in 1589, King Henry III asked him to send the Sancy diamond, so that under his mortgage to get money to hire soldiers.

Senor de Sancy Stone sent his servant, who robbed and killed the robbers.Since the diamond then never showed up, we decided to examine the corpse of a servant, and at the opening of the stomach found a diamond swallowed before he died faithful servant.

later owned diamond queen of France Marie de Medici, then - Prince Louis Ferdinand, grandson of the last German Emperor Guillaume II.

«Grand Sancy" was first in Amsterdam and was purchased by Nicola Sancy in 1594, he then sold the diamond to King of England James I. After 100 years, the stone returned to France, and they owned the French kings Louis XIV and Louis XV.

After the French Revolution of 1789 "Grand Sancy" disappeared and reappeared only in 1830, when he was put up for sale by the French merchant.He bought for 500,000 francs Russian industrialist PN Demidov.

However, the French government objected to the purchase of the right, and only 5 years later Demidov was able to get them bought a diamond.Then the stone was in India, where it was stored in the treasury of Maharaja Putiala.

In 1867, the diamond was exhibited at an exhibition in Paris.The last 100 years belonged to the family stone Astors again until he returned to France.In 1976 it was purchased by the Louvre Museum, and he became a national treasure of France.

With one of the most beautiful, a very rare blue diamond "Hope" linked very grim tales.In Europe, the stone fell in 1642 from India.It weighed while in its raw form 112.5 carats.Diamond was sold to Louis XV soon.After already cut diamond weighing 68 carats.In 1792 it was stolen, and traces of it are lost.

In 1830, there was a blue diamond of 44.5 carats, which was sold to a London banker Hope.It is believed that the stolen to the end XVIII.France stone was split, and one of its parts, and this is a diamond.In 1909 the stone again hit the market.In 1911 it was bought by an American millionaire Edward B. McLean.

In 1947 died an American, Evelyn Walsh, owned at the time of the stone, and he went to her granddaughter bequest Mamie Reynolds, who soon died under mysterious circumstances.In the end, the diamond was in the Smithsonian Institute in Washington.

About diamond "Hope" One time there was a rumor about a stone that brings misfortune: he was in Europe, together with the plague.Queen of France Marie Antoinette once gave his reproach Lambele princess, which was soon killed, and then was executed, and the owner of the stone itself.After the abduction of the diamond and his return in a highly reduced form it acquired the Hope banker.After some time, the son of a banker was poisoned, and his grandson was ruined.

Korytovsky Russian prince at the beginning of the XX century.He gave this stone Parisian dancer, which after a short time he's shot out of jealousy, and he was killed in the attempt.

Sultan Abdul-Hamid II of, buying a diamond, gave his mistress, which was soon killed, and the Sultan was forced to flee from their country.Then the diamond was a Spaniard, drowned in the sea.

Stone moved to the American who bought it for his wife.The couple soon lost her only child, a poor father was crazy.Then the "Hope" belonged to the couple, drowned when the death of "Titanic."

unusual shape is a diamond "Raja Maltansky" (367 carats), which was found in 1787 on the island of Borneo.Diamond cutting is not exposed.For an unusual pear-shaped, large size and luster believed that he has supernatural powers.

believed that it determines the fertility of the land and wealth of the country

that with the help of this stone can heal all kinds of diseases if you drink the water in which he omitted in certain spells.

history of diamond, named after the "Eagles", began in the early XVII India.this stone weight is about 400 carats.Stone was a descendant of Timur Shah Jehan, - the representative of the Mughals.The diamond was sent to cut.

order to preserve the mass of rock, in the treatment were only podshlifovany his natural face, resulting in a diamond purchased is not quite the correct form.However, when cut diamond lost almost half of the original mass and began to weigh 194.8 carats.Angered by the Shah not only paid cutters, but also took away all the savings in compensation, according to him, for tainted stone.In the middle of the XVII century.Jehan Shah throne captured by his son and imprisoned his father in prison.

«Orlov» several times passed from hand to hand until it came to an Armenian Safrasu Gregory, who in 1772 sold the stone to his relative - court jeweler Ivan Lazarev, who succumbed to it in 1773 for 400 thousand Count Grigory Orlov. rubles, a lifetime pension and noble letter.

Graf Orlov presented the diamond to Catherine II the name day of November 24, 1773 With the 1784 diamond called the "Eagles" began to decorate the sovereign scepter Russian Empire."Eagles" is a gorgeous diamond of the purest water with a weak bluish-green tint.Its dimensions - 22h32h35 mm.

diamond "Shah" almost retained its natural appearance.It has the shape of an elongated crystal-octahedron, the mass of 88.7 carat and color of the water with a yellow-brown tint.Stone was used once as a talisman and was suspended for the thread, as evidenced by the very skilfully executed groove depth of 0.5 mm at its sophisticated end.

on three surfaces of the crystal can be seen beautifully engraved inscriptions in Persian.The oldest inscription made in 1591 the ruler of the Indian province of Ahmadna Gard Burhan Nizam Shah P.

At the beginning of the XIX century., As stated in the third line, "Shah" has appeared in Persia.In 1829, during the riots in Tehran, was killed by the Russian Ambassador, the author of the comedy "Woe from Wit" Griboyedov, and the Persian government to resolve the conflict diamond gave Nicholas I.

most rare colored diamond is considered to Sanguineous (shenot included in the global gradation of colors).The largest diamond of this color weighs 5.05 carats.The stone was found in Tihtenburge (South Africa) in 1927 and is now in a private collection in the United States,

most expensive diamond was sold for 9.13 million dollars.This stone is a pear-shaped 85.91 carat massoy was bought by Laurence Graff in London at Sotheby's in New York in 1988

record price per carat weight was 975,000 dollars in the sale of purple-red mass of stone of 0.95 carats,sold at Christie's auction in the same year.The $ 10 million cost of the Chinese Hong Kong Choi Tai Fuku in 1989 a raw stone.