into any other cultural institution spectacular London not rush visiting tourists with a frenzy, in Madame Tussauds.Queues, standing at his door in any, even the rainy weather, onlookers admire the enthusiasm of visitors and vividly reminded of the lines in which to discharge the same years, our people have thronged the mausoleum door.
However, the Tussauds not mausoleum?Wax image Ilyich virtually indistinguishable from the original ovoskovevshego that we beheld in the Kremlin granite tomb.Meanwhile Tussauds can be seen not only a leader of the Russian Revolution, and the whole historical sonmische like him, "giants", not to mention the stars of contemporary world politics, sports, entertainment and other sorts of glorious human activity.And for the curious individual citizens is very important, all of them, you can feel, touch and even photographed arm in arm with them.
Since the founding of Madame Tussauds Museum was visited by over 500 million people - in other words, the population of North Americ
Today, there are in this museum, and most of his wax figure of the founder.According to archival records, in 1761, in Strasbourg, he was born a girl whom they called Marie.Two months after this event, her father, a soldier of the Austrian army, Johann Joseph Groskholts, died on the fronts of the Seven Years' War.Mother Anna, being younger than her husband of 27 years, soon began an affair with Dr. Philip Kyurtyusom, to which she took a job as a housekeeper.After moving in 1767 to Paris, the doctor invited bring Anna and her daughter.Philip became attached to Mary, and baby found in him a caring father and a good mentor.
his career in France Kyurtyus began with the manufacture of miniature busts of wax.Expert of human nature, he skillfully flattered to its customers, portraying them more attractive than they were in reality.In an era when there were no pictures, and a portrait of the artist was expensive, and not everyone was on the pocket, wax figures Kyurtyusa enjoyed great popularity, as measured by the numerous orders.The resulting profits enabled him to rent a gallery in a prestigious aristocratic district of Paris.
Marie after a few years of primary school gradually got involved in this activity.First Kyurtyus showed her how to sculpt flowers and fruits of wax, then stories became more complex.She started to get used to this mysterious material brittle and rebellious at the same time, in parallel learned to paint, sew and to model hairstyles.The girl was able, but its support has become more visible.
One cold February day in 1778, Philip took Marie with him to the street of Beaune, where he stopped the great Voltaire.She closely followed the work of his teacher: for her it was the first lesson in the face of modeling - the most difficult element of the human figure.It was also the first lesson in living history, which she will never forget.
Two months later the great sage died, and suddenly they became the sole owner of a unique cast of wax, made during the life of the philosopher.Business acumen Kyurtyusa told him that you need to immediately make the bust of Voltaire.Exposed in a shop window, it attracts customers, and just spectators who wanted to bid farewell to this extraordinary personality.But Philip Marie gave another lesson: do not ignore the audience, who, after their exhibition once, then back again, turning to clients and customers.
Works Marie were soon spotted by the French King Louis XVI, and the young Mademoiselle Groskholts was invited to the court.Nine years lived in the future Madame Tussauds brilliant Versailles, teaching artistic skills the king sister, Madame Elizabeth, and enjoying all the pleasures of palace life.Not surprisingly, when the burst drenched the country in blood the Great Revolution, "wax teacher" monarchs was enrolled in the lists of "supporters of kings."Versailles apartments replaced the prison cell and a neighbor in the gloomy dungeons of Marie was the future wife of Napoleon Bonaparte, Josephine de Beauharnais.
Head Josephine and Marie was cut - they have prepared for the ascent to the gallows.Fate, however, pardoned both by giving a chance to become one of Madame Tussauds, the other - the Empress of France.However, in order to release from prison Mademoiselle Groskholts revolutionaries witnessed his loyalty, she was destined ordeal: carve death masks of those who live alongside it in the court, including masks beheaded Louis and Marie Antoinette.Moreover, she had to find their severed heads to the cemetery among the great number of bloody remains of those who have fallen from the guillotine of the Great Revolution.Life between ruthless in its irony: the future Madame Tussauds had a chance to sculpt the death masks are not only the victims, but also their executioners.Robespierre mask, sculpted arms Marie, became one of the most outstanding of its work.
culmination of its activities was the murder of Marat by Charlotte Corday.Marie did not know anything, when the company included several representatives of the authorities and demanded to take everything you need for impression taking, escorted her to the scene of the murder.Her hands worked well and confidently, almost mechanically, his eyes trying to remember the facial features of a young woman surrounded by soldiers.When he returned, she regained her memory portrait, and later on his sketches made mask Charlotte.Suddenly it dawned on Mary, that this woman alone, without his victim, does not represent anything special, they should be together.There was the idea of creating not only figures, but also some scenes that reproduce key moments of history.It was the beginning of the future of the collection.
In 1794 Dr. Kyurtyus died, bequeathing to his death all his wax exhibit his pupil Marie Groskholts.Soon after she married the French engineer Francois Tussaud, who had three children - a daughter who died in infancy, and the sons of Joseph and François.However, things went Madame Tussauds at this time is not brilliant: in experiencing a period of deep economic decline of post-revolutionary France, an exhibition of wax figures withered and hubby successfully drank away all the money ... And then brave Marie decided to sail to new shores.
In 1802 she, along with his eldest son plunged their wax figures on the ship and headed toward Albion.Neither France nor his wife Marie Tussaud has not seen more than ever.
first experience showed in this unfamiliar country it has that English history no less entertaining than the French: Richard the Lionheart and Henry VII of, Mary Stuart and Mary Tudor, Oliver Cromwell ... Madame Tussauds immediately set to work, these modelingcharacters.These were the figures in full growth.Hair and eye color, height, build, clothing consistent with reality, and next to the figure for the greater credibility and sometimes recreated atmosphere of the era.The British, the lovers in their past, appreciated the work of Marie.
But fortune did not always smile to her in 1822, after a tour of Ireland and the cargo ship, which was to take all of her figure in Liverpool, sank.For Mary it was tantamount to death, the exhibition was the sole source of its existence.And it is in these incredibly difficult days it appeared new qualities: perseverance and strength of character.She started all over again, the benefit of all the dummies who Expert never destroyed, were on the other vessel.Marie found a loan for the purchase of material, and then alone, without any help from the morning until late at night molded shapes, sewed costumes, hairstyles modeled.It recreates the entire collection, which consisted at the time of several dozen pieces, and add to it new characters.And, as compensation, came to her real fame.
be represented during his lifetime collection of Madame Tussaud's has become prestigious.The exhibition was met with enthusiasm in all the cities in the UK.Millions of people of that era, when about the photographs and historical films have not been out of the question, it provided a unique opportunity to see the history.
Again London and Liverpool, Dublin and New York, and again ... London Madame Tussauds accustomed to the nomadic life, but the children want to change the situation by offering to create a stationary exhibition.It took her a while to get used to the idea, and one day in 1835 she gave her consent.They had had enough money to buy a house in the center of London and open a museum in it.When there came the first visitors, Madame Tussauds realized that the children were right.Only in this way can be seen and really assess their long-term work.But the true joy she delivered a sense of family clan, and that is, who continue her endeavor.
Wisdom and intuition did not deceive her.The fact that Marie began in the XVIII century, turned into a vast entertainment empire in the XXI century.Rhode Tussauds thrives, great-grandchildren continue the work of his great grandmother, opened a museum under the name of Madame Tussauds in Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Las Vegas and New York.
This extraordinary woman died in 1850 at the age of ninety years.Having been born and spent his childhood in Strasbourg - a city with German culture, starting his career in France, having achieved real success in the UK, she entered the history of world civilization.Her mentality and life principles as our modern era, that now it is difficult to believe that she was a contemporary of the French Revolution.