Ella Fitzgerald recorded for his creative life, which lasted more than five decades, 250 music albums and has won 13 awards "Grammy" - the highest awards of the music world of America.
Based on the Negro origins of native art, Ella Fitzgerald gave a uniquely original style of jazz singing, when the artist really has no way inferior to the composer.Old songs in the singer's performance gain new life, sometimes unexpected shape.
Ella Fitzgerald was born April 25, 1917 in Newport News, Virginia.Her father left the family, the girl's stepfather raised.Ella grew up in poverty, most of all she loved to sing and dance.After the death of her mother took to her aunt.
In school, a girl willing to sing, but she preferred singing dancing.Her natural shyness prevented the desire to become a pop artist.
In 1934 the Negro girl, an orphan, who had already worked in a brothel caretaker, going to New York.Here it is written in the amateur competition.Then she thought it would be, as well as the famous Ethel Waters, f
Speech at the famous Harlem theater "Apollo", where it was a success, was an important event in her life.It was at this competition has attracted the attention of the head of the swing jazz band Chick Webb.He invited the girl to become a soloist with his band, but only on the condition that she will like it, "the boys from Yale University," invited the orchestra to play Webb in their dances."Guys," a young black singer is extremely liked, and that was for her the beginning of a long journey on the stage.
In 1935 she recorded with the band Webb his first album "Love and Kisses", immediately entered the jazz charts.In 1938, together with Al Feldman has created a praise her song "E-tisket, e-tasket" combines not only jazz, but also pop motifs.The singer converted the baby couplets: "I wrote a letter to my mother lost it on the road, the little girl picked it up and put it in his pocket, and I even lost my little yellow basket ..." The result is a rhythmic room - quite in the spirit of pre-war dancefever.
«Compare the symbolism of the" lost yellow basket "with mythologeme" red hats "(of course, also goes back to the archetype of initiation), again as an adult, not the Pioneer-Prokofiev's interpretation - and in this comparison is the whole Ella Fitzgerald,- says Dmitry Ukhov.- And in vain to the truly intoxicating ease with which it was given to all, we see the superficiality, and in its perfection of professionalism - a craft and indifference to the repertoire, and to life in general.In fact, there is, of course, was something existentially different - something that intuitively felt and the singer herself: she in fact did not become a singer Negro blues, Negro songs tragic irony of life, losing only once, in the early 60's, asto be expected, without any result. "
After the success of "E-tisket, e-tasket" ranks of fans of the singer have replenished many millions of new ones.By the way, it was then that among admirers Fitzgerald was also famous by Frank Sinatra.
Twenty Ella overshadowed by its naturalness of young and beautiful women.Often, she said: "My mother kept saying to me, if you feel that it is not as beautiful as your girlfriend, smile more often than they are."
With Webb recorded hits: «Sing Me a Swing Song», «Oh, Yes», «Take Another Guess», «The Dipsy Doodle», «If Dreams Come True» and «Undecided».
After Webb's death, in 1939, Ella was the orchestra leader, and retained this position until 1942, when the band broke up.
Then Ella part with a favorite swing, and switches to a ballad.Fitzgerald performed with such renowned vocal ensembles as "Delta Rhythm Boys," "faux kitty" and "Inc. Spots".Once again, the singer rises to the top of the charts, releasing in 1944 plate «Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall».Along with Louis Jordan, she manages to sell more than a million copies of the album «Stone Coid Dead in the Market».During one tour with Dizzy Gillespie falls in love with Ray Brown, one of the best bassists of his time.
singer was married twice.Her first husband, in 1941-1943 - worker docker Benny Carnegie.The second time she married Brown, the second marriage lasted five years.
Since 1946, the singer's manager, Norman Granz becomes founder repertory "Jazz at the Philharmonic."He's singing career has played a decisive role.After she regained Webb teacher and mentor.Granz made from Ella star his orchestra.Then he led her from the company, and the singer began performing recitals with piano, trumpet and percussion instruments.
It was under the leadership of Granz Fitzgerald his improvisations without words, so-called scat, has ensured that in jazz vocalists have become respected no less than virtuoso instrumentalists.Due to their smash hit "Lady Be Good" and "How high the moon" Ella has proven that he has the talent of improvisation, allowing it to "engage in dialogue" with famous musicians, soloists.She was considered to be not just a singer of songs, and even their creator, the creator.Her impresario since 1950 strongly supported and encouraged the activity of the singer.
In 1947, there was a remarkable record Fitzgerald "How high the moon" - she showed the amplitude of the singer's voice.Then there was the famous "Mack the Knife" Ella, who left far behind, and Frank Sinatra and Bobby Darin.
D. Ukhov writes: "Now very few people would believe that if it were not cute parody of Ella Louis Armstrong, the famous verses" Mecca Knife "by Kurt Weill in the US could be on the verge of a ban, since, taken out of context" Threepennyopera ", they really sounded like the idealization of thieves cynicism.In the 50 years of the same Norman Granz correctly he saw in his ward lyrical singer: there is a whole series of monographic LPs - songbooks, dedicated to the Broadway musical classics from George Gershwin to Cole Porter (higher its achievement as a pop singer).Then the experiment was undertaken: the opera recording of Gershwin "Porgy and Bess", in which all the parts were performed by only two singers - Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong.The experiment proved so compelling that later on the same lines recorded this opera Sammy Davis and Carmen McRae, Ray Charles & Cleo Laine and even cult punk band «When People Were Shorter».
In fact, thanks to the one Ella Fitzgerald and her accompanists (especially the pianist Ellis Larkins) American musical acquires own musical dimension: instead of the elected "crown room" of the theater, a new genre - the song-album cycle, which is just two steps up"Sergeant Pepper" Beatles."I never knew how good our songs - once remarked Ira Gershwin, brother and co-composer - is for them came from Ella Fitzgerald".
For Granz recordings on records found an interesting move: to record the entire repertoire of the famous American composers of musicals.Design studio singer was accompanied by the best orchestras in the composition of which were stringed instruments.Ella sang almost all the works of composers George Gershwin, Rodgers and Hart, Jerome Kern, Irving Berlin and Cole Porter.
So its program is included and «Saint Louis Blues», and old songs performed by black musicians in 1914, and the Brazilian bossa nova, and, of course, the popular pop and jazz compositions.
These recorded in 50 years of albums remain the best evidence of the most fruitful era of American music.Ella Fitzgerald made a miracle: she meticulously reproduces the text, finding in them the hidden treasures, which are up to it nobody even guessed.
Among other significant records of the singer can be noted as concerts with André Prevenom and Paulino da Costa.
«..in the 70 th, when the singer's voice inevitably starts to weaken, the singer will perform and record the accompaniment of only one acoustic guitar Joe Pass - says Dmitry Ukhov.- But even in these later it records almost no characteristic of mature age (and the performers themselves and their genre) nostalgia
voice of Ella Fitzgerald, it seemed, forever remains defiantly boyish.Ella Fitzgerald - Artist of Young Art, the youth and the general temperament of the young nation.Not anyone, and the first lady of jazz itself first reached for adolescent amusements Lennon and McCartney. "
singer always avoided politics.However, in January 1961 he took part in a gala concert in support of Kennedy, organized by Sinatra.
more than two decades, the singer lived in the fashionable quarter of Beverly Hills, California, not far from the Hollywood stars that have always admired.Life led serene: knitting, watching TV in the company of his son Ray, who became a musician - a drummer, sometimes traveled for shopping, prefer large stores.If
age the voice of Ella Fitzgerald became a deeper and richer hues, the health began to deteriorate over the years, and since the mid-seventies more rapidly.In August 1985, I had to interrupt the concert tour and immediately go to the hospital because of the discovered on lung fluid.In July 1986, she was hospitalized again, this time because of problems with the heart for treatment had to resort to surgery.
In the late 80's - early 90's her performances at the New York jazz festival constantly became event of the year.The idea resulted in a break in the horror of the singer, she always complained that simply can not sit at home.In 1989 she had a guest in her California home, visited the journalist Leonard Fitero and his question as she is recovering, the singer said: "I sit at home and miss, I miss the travel, relocations".
In 1990, she again went to the hospital - during a tour in the Netherlands.In 1993, due to the effects of diabetes had to amputate both legs below the knees.
She died in her sleep on 15 June 1996, at his home in Beverly Hills.Upon learning of the death of the famous singer, US President Bill Clinton said: "I am deeply saddened by the death of Ella Fitzgerald.Human Care of such talent, grace and class - a huge loss to the world of jazz, and the whole country. "