Household Safety : Electricity

dinner warm, watch TV, surf the web, wash and iron clothes - in any case, without cunning amp anywhere.But often there are situations when the normal rhythm of life is penalized for a power surge or short circuit.How can you protect yourself against these phenomena, in order to prevent damage in the building of household appliances, the current injury, or worse, a fire?

Phantom Menace

Of course, the most important danger in the house is worn electrical wiring.Signs of serious problems may be quite familiar to our apartments phenomena - is falling outlet, a spark occurred when sticking a fork in the plug, and regular knockout "machines" in the switchboard.The signal may serve as a conventional light bulbs in the chandeliers.If the light "blinks", became very dim, or, on the contrary, quite bright, it is a sign of deterioration of the wiring.Each apartment has a box in which there is an electrical node - in this place together wires throughout the apartment and "sent" to the panel.If it blackened wir

e, means require replacement.

However, experts do not advise to carry out an audit of the system by yourself - a professional will do it faster and safer, because he knows all the details.With the help of Megger Tester and he will assess the state of the network and voltage stability on the network, identify the most dangerous places, and tell you whether you can fix the problem.

If in fact it turned out that the condition of the electrical wiring in your home is critical, it is urgent to reflect on its complete replacement.A standard one-room apartment with total area of ​​40 square meters.m, this service will cost a minimum of 30 000 rubles.Money considerable, but experts do not advise to save his own life.

According to the Russian Emergency Situations Ministry, the state of the electrical network in 70% of homes are in poor condition - it is virtually developed its operational capabilities.In this case more than 50% of fires in homes occur due to a problem with the wiring.In particular risk are people who live in older homes.In particular, Moscow houses wiring made of aluminum, and its service life is not more than 20-25 years.After that, it just falls apart, it turns into dust.

In addition, according to the rules of electrical devices, the design load on the electrical network in most homes is 800-1000 watts.A modern kettle consumes up to 2 kW.Earlier in the apartments did not have such a large number of appliances.Wiring laid, without assuming that it would be a serious burden.For example, an electric hob power consumption - about 6 kW, and the apartment was given earlier only 3 kW, and only in some areas - 6 kW.

protection devices

But as "symptoms", speaking about the problems in the wiring, there are in most cases single, many of us put off repairs and are looking for alternative ways to maintain safety in the home.As one of the options used protective device (RCD).it cuts off the power at the slightest leak.The operating principle of the RCD based on constant monitoring of the current strength in the supply (phase) and reverse (the neutral) conductors.Under normal conditions, the current in them will be about the same, and for the closure of this balance is disturbed.RCD detects this difference and actuates the release mechanism, stopping the power supply to the emergency section of the network.In some cases, experts advise to install a differential Machine (Emergency circuit breakers).It is in contrast to the RCD is additionally equipped with built-in protection device against short-circuit and thermal overload the network.

According to experts, surges in the internal electricity network - a very common problem.For household appliances supply voltage fluctuations should not be greater than 7%, for the digital equipment - within 3%.The network must be 220 +/- 10%.However, the actual fluctuations are often much higher than the permissible limits.

most common device that protects against power surges that can cause failure and fire equipment, - is an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).The device tests the existence and magnitude of the AC voltage supply, and as soon as the voltage level is out of range, or it disappears completely into operation the battery pack installed in the unit.However, use of UPS is to connect low power devices, such as a computer monitor, system unit and a matrix or inkjet printer.But a laser printer and a scanner and other high-power devices to connect through better-quality surge protector.Protective device system protects connected devices against transient voltage spikes on the network, as well as pulse and high frequency noise.

off - not turned

Iron, which we remember only at work, it has become for many of us a symbol of the threat posed by electrical appliances.Certainly, for manufacturers of home appliances similar to the image of their products is completely unacceptable, therefore safety is the main trend of improvement appliances - (and not only irons).One important aspect that distinguishes high-quality equipment - the presence of a high degree of protection.

most common cause of failure of heating appliances during their operation - it exceeded the maximum allowable load.To protect the device and to avoid risk of fire, manufacturers equip their products thermal fuses, which upon the occurrence of critical exponents disable the device.Of great importance for the safety reliability thermocontrollers plays.

There are two types of temperature control sensors: mechanical and electronic.Operation is based on the first bimetallic plate which is deformed when heated, thereby influencing the contact mechanism of rupture.Such a system provides, for example, auto kettle when boiling, when removed from the base, as well as the inclusion of the lock, if the unit is not filled with water.

The electronic system controls the temperature in the heating elements are used as sensors that tend to change their resistance when heated, and the change is registered with the help of special electronic devices.For example, some models of irons electronic temperature control system allows to realize a color display device heating modes depending on the type of fabric: acrylic, silk, wool, cotton, linen.In addition, in these models automatic disconnection module stops the heating of the iron if it remains motionless in a horizontal position within 35 seconds, and vertically - 10 minutes.Useful Features Auto has electric heaters and oil - the unit stops heating if accidentally overturned.

Electromechanical appliances such as juicers, meat grinders, blenders, mixers, etc., also have protection, blocking technique when overloaded.If the model is equipped with an optional automatic power-off, in the event of an emergency situation the user can restore the device without having recourse to a service center.

As the apple of an eye

If we, the adults, are not immune to shock, what can we say about the little kids who love could crawl, explore the vast expanses of apartments for them.Wires, last buttons on your TV, DVD-player and other devices as well as attract the kids.

The first thing that should make parents - to restrict children's access to outlets, covering them with special covers.At any time, you can install the sockets with child protection - it's probably the only device that could save the child from the risk, and parents - from anxiety.They are sold in every store and represent outlet with shutter.

Danger can come from the electric wires and - parents know how to interest the child plays with them.It is essential that all wires are protected by a special self-extinguishing duct.It protects not only from the edge, but also from a possible fire, as is made of a material that prevents the spread of fire.

also help parents set up a rather popular mini-alarm.This small device is oval-shaped, resembling a bug that can be installed anywhere - including in the area of ​​the cluster of wires, for example, next to your computer.When a child to climb, the unit will give a warning signal to the parent that the child is in a dangerous area.

So, the electricity enters into our lives, but in addition to the amenities it brings and extra care.Among them is the need to comply with certain safety regulations.Be careful, do not risk your life and the lives of people close to you and, "leaving, extinguish the light!»