Can you looked at the stranger's face, read his character, behavior motives - a secret book of vices and virtues?It is in this reading of human nature and, ultimately, his fate has been physiognomy.
believed that the father of the European physiognomy is an outstanding philosopher and scientist Aristotle antiquity.He and his students argued: facial features, his facial expression is characterized by a particular type of people, they can be used to determine a person's character, his intellect and talent.
Aristotle and the philosophers who lived before him, considered the face of the mirror of the soul, a book in which you can read about the strong and weak traits.Socrates and Plato were able to decipher the expression interlocutor face, Pythagoras, according to contemporaries, are not allowed to study mathematics to students on their faces that he saw no ability to think abstractly.
famous doctors of antiquity, Galen, and Aulus Cornelius Celsus, philosophers Cicero and Pliny the Younger - all of them
Aulus Cornelius Celsus wrote: "Those who have a long time face is pale and puffy, suffer from headaches or stomach, or from internal pain."Modern clinical studies have helped to create a whole terminological classification of individual patients.Doctors distinguish between "abdominal" face - pale, sunken, characteristic of severe inflammation of the peritoneum, "adenoid" observed hypertrophy of the tonsils ( "dumb" sleepy face with mouth half open), "aortic" registrant for diseases of the aorta and the heart - sunken cheeksskin pale, bluish sclera, etc.
In the Middle Ages the views of Aristotle shared the great Ibn Sina, known in Europe as Avicenna.In his medical practice, he detailed analysis of expression of sick persons, and the results of these observations are used in diagnosis.
successor and continuer of the works of Aristotle became Johann Kaspar Lavater, Swiss priest, poet and artist, prepared and issued in 1772-1778 gg.four-volume treatise on physiognomy.He argued that "a person is just as available to read as it is inherent in the books, the only difference is the tone that they are read in a short time and less deceived us."
Lavater sketched thousands of people, creating a table of six fund - "Bible physiognomy."Scientist struck his contemporaries the ability to correctly decipher the facial expressions of the subject, but he believed that "physiognomic sense - it is a gift of God" and learn it very difficult.
Famous writers, of course, had this gift.They created such characteristics portrait of his characters, who accurately disclose their inner essence.Leafing through the novel Honore page de Balzac "shagreen leather", you can once again see how clearly and precisely the author conveys the old antiquarian response, played a fatal role in the fate of the young rake Raphael: "Imagine a wizened skinny old man, dressed in a black velvet gown, interceptedthick silk cord ... Her lips were so colorless, so subtle that only under special attention could be distinguished line of mouth on his white face.High wrinkled forehead, cheeks, faded and sunken, implacable rigor of the little green eyes, devoid of eyebrows and eyelashes - all this can inspire a stranger idea that came out of the frame "weigher of Gold", created by Gerard Dou.Intrigue Inquisitor expose wrinkles that furrowed his cheeks radiate around the eyes and showed deep knowledge of life ... "Remember the tragic denouement of the novel?Terrible mascot, sold the old merchant, killing a young Rafael Valentin, who wanted "to live without knowing the measures."
In the XIX century, has developed one of the directions of physiognomy - phrenology - read a person's character art in the form of his skull.Its adherents Lombroso and I. Pende treated biotype man and his face as the result of inherent fatal at birth aptitudes, abilities and shortcomings.On the basis of their teachings originated forensic direction is determined by the human face and the structure of his skull laid on the nature of addiction criminogenic nature.
phrenology and physiognomists old school believed that if the head is squeezed above the temples and is expanding in the area of the jaw, the man led by animal instincts, greed.Head, extended over the temples indicates the rich imagination of the subject, and even to a certain tendency to mysticism.The narrow elongated head - the ability in the sciences, and intellectual curiosity.
Strongly convex neck testified that his owner is different affectionate, sometimes mathematical ability.The flat back of the head - an indication that in front of you selfish.The convexity of the parietal part closer to the forehead speaks of the goodness, the bulge in the middle - on the strength of will and fortitude.
Eastern physiognomy is different from Western certain characteristics.ethics system adopted in the East, believes that one of the virtues of the ability to hide emotion, save in any situation impartiality mask.Recognized read individual masters - Eastern philosophers - gave special attention to such qualities as respect for parents, decency, loyalty lord, loyalty to the authorities.The presence or absence of these qualities, and they tried to find their faces.
For ease of reading Eastern physiognomists conventionally divided a person's face with horizontal lines into three zones: the upper, middle and lower.The upper zone - it's mostly the frontal part that reflects the entire way of life of man.On it physiognomists obtain information for the period of life between 15 and 30 years.Ideal forehead, that is the right shape and healthy skin tone, speak about the beautiful state of body and spirit, and the absence of strong shocks of life in his younger years.
middle zone (from the eyebrows to the tip of the nose) reflects the years of life from 35 to 50 years.A harmonious balance of this zone indicates the mental order.The lower zone (upper lip, jaw, mouth, chin) gives information about the period in 55-57 years, as well as more advanced age.The correct form of this area speak about balance nature.
eyebrows, according to the oriental physiognomy canon indicate a degree of balance between emotions and mind.Considered ideal wide long eyebrows.Hard, bristly eyebrows indicate complete disorder of feelings and reason.Nice shape of the eyebrows indicates that their owner gets along very well with others.
If a man straight long eyebrows, and, moreover, those eyebrows speak against the background of pleasant in appearance and color, it has a reputation for intellectual.A woman with eyebrows has a strong character and is not suitable for the traditional role of housewife.Highly placed eyebrows - a sign of commitment.Brows that sit too low, suggest otherwise.
(To be continued)