Ever since man learned to use tools and became Homo sapiens, began its impact on the environment of the Earth.Further development led only to an increase in the influence of the scale.Let's talk about how man affects nature.What are the pros and cons of this influence?
Human impact on the Earth's biosphere is ambiguous.With confidence we can say only one thing: the world was not exactly be without a man for what he is.And the earth and the ocean.To begin, let's learn about the negative aspects of human impact on the nature of the Earth:
- Deforestation.Trees - "lungs" of the Earth, mitigating the negative effects of human impact on Earth's climate by converting carbon dioxide into oxygen.But apparently, the man do not need help.In areas where 20 years ago grew impenetrable forests, paved highway and planted fields.
- depletion, soil contamination.To increase productivity - use of fertilizer, pesticides and other chemicals, polluting the earth.And productivity growth implies increased consumption of nutrients and minerals by plants at a specific site.Recovery is their content - an extremely slow process.The soil is depleted.
- reduction of populations.To ensure the power of the Earth's growing population requires new space fields.Under them have to take new territory.For example, cutting down forests.Many animals, losing their natural habitat, are killed.Such changes - the result of the so-called indirect human impact.
- destruction of tens of thousands of species of animals and plants.Unfortunately, they were unable to adapt to life on Earth, the changed person.Some were simply exterminated.This is - one more method of influence.
- pollution of water and atmosphere.This - below.
It creates protected areas, parks, wildlife sanctuaries - places where the nature of the impact is limited.Moreover - there are people even maintain flora and fauna.For example, some species now are found only in protected areas.Were it not for them - they would have long ago disappeared from the face of the Earth.The second point: the artificial canals and irrigation systems make the fertile land, which no human intervention would be as bare as a desert.Perhaps everything.
impact of humans on the nature of the mountains and ocean
Wastes from the production, and even the usual rubbish find their last refuge in the waters of the oceans.So, in the Pacific Ocean there are the so-called dead zone - a huge area, fully covered with floating debris.Illustrative example of how people affect the natural environment.Light garbage floats in the ocean, but remains on the surface.Impede access of light and air to the inhabitants of the ocean.Entire species are forced to seek a new location.It manages not all.
The worst thing is that the same plastic, for example, can be expanded in the ocean for thousands of years.Floating dump appeared no more than half a century ago, but since then its area and the impact on the ecosystem have increased tenfold.Each year, the ocean currents bring millions of tons of new debris.This is - a real ecological disaster for the ocean.
not only polluted the oceans, but also fresh water.In any major river, on which stand the big city daily come thousands of cubic meters of sewage, industrial wastes.Groundwater bring pesticides, chemical fertilizers.Finally, waste water discharged.Worst of all, that the supply of fresh water on Earth are strictly limited - it is less than 1% of the total volume of the world ocean.
should also mention oil spills.We know that one drop of oil makes it unfit to drink about 25 liters of water.But this is - not the worst.It spilled into the sea or ocean oil forms a very thin film that covers a huge area.The same drop of oil film covers 20 square meters of water.
This film, although it has a small thickness, is pernicious for all alive.She does not miss oxygen, so if living organisms can not move to another territory - they are doomed to a slow death.Think of how much oil tankers and other vessels carrying oil, suffer an accident in the oceans of the Earth each year?Thousands!The water fall, millions of tons of oil.
But what about the people affected by the nature of the mountains?The negative impact is mainly in deforestation on their slopes.The slopes are bare, vegetation disappears.There is erosion and loosening the soil.And this, in turn, leads to collapses.Also, a person produces the minerals that were formed in the earth for millions of years -. Coal, oil, etc. When you save the production rates, reserve resources will suffice for a maximum of 100 years.
The impact of human activities on the processes in the Arctic
Industrial production across the Earth, as well as cars emit huge amounts of carbon dioxide.This leads to a decrease in the thickness of the ozone layer that protects Earth's surface from the sun's deadly ultraviolet radiation.Over the past 30 years the concentration of ozone over some areas of the world has decreased tenfold.A little more - and there will be a hole, patch up that man can not do.
Carbon dioxide will not evaporate from the lower layers of the Earth's atmosphere.It is the main cause of global warming.The essence of the effect of carbon dioxide - in increasing the average temperature of the Earth.So, over the past 50 years it has increased by 0.6 degrees.It may seem that it is - a small value.But this opinion is erroneous.
Global warming leads to such laws as the rise in sea temperature.Melting polar ice caps in the Arctic.Violated the ecosystem of the Earth's poles.But glaciers - a source of huge amounts of fresh water.Increased sea levels.All this - due to carbon dioxide.The need to reduce its emissions is an issue of worldwide importance.If we do not find a solution - Earth in a few hundred years can become uninhabitable.