Carbohydrates - the main source of energy in the human body, they help the body feel tired and hungry, and the brain - work effectively.There are 2 types of carbohydrates: simple and complex.The first is the main cause of weight gain due to the rapid assimilation, a sharp increase in blood sugar, insulin emission.Complex carbohydrates, in turn - an integral part of a healthy diet.This type of carbohydrate is absorbed slowly, providing the body with a long satiety, energy, and when used in reasonable quantities, does not cause weight gain.
Types of simple and complex carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates are a chemical compound of one or two molecules.This source of energy has a pronounced sweet taste, it is easy to split, is rapidly absorbed, reaching maximum concentration in the blood almost immediately after consumption.There are two main groups of simple carbohydrates: monosaccharides and disaccharides.
1. Monosaccharides (1 molecule).
- Glucose.Digested faster than all other types of simple carbohydrate compounds.It is known as dextrose.Huge amounts of its use in the production of sweet carbonated water, wherein glucose is indicated as "corn syrup".It is not recommended to use more than 10 spoons of sugar per day, and sweet water contains a third more.
- galactose.Carbohydrate compounds, producing mammary gland of cows and other mammals.Not found in plants.
- Fructose.Quick carbohydrate that entering the liver is converted to glycogen.It improves brain function, nourish muscle tissue.
2. Disaccharides (2 molecules).
- Sucrose or ordinary table sugar.Ingredients: glucose + fructose.
- Lactose.Ingredients: galactose + glucose.
- Maltose or maltose sugar.Ingredients: 2 molecules of glucose.Contained in the germinated seeds, cereals and beer, so almost absent in the human diet.
Quick carbohydrates immediately begin to flow into the blood after drinking, then there is the release of insulin.Insulin, in turn, lowers the level of sugar, making the sugar to fat.This increases the "carbohydrate hunger", provokes a person to use again simple carbohydrate compounds.This type of food can lead to obesity and to the development of other unpleasant diseases, so nutritionists have come to the conclusion that is more useful to use the slow carbohydrates.Carbohydrates
complex or slow type, along with some protein and fat, in a specific ratio constitute useful diet.There are several types of them:
- Starch.It is a complex chemical compound, which consists of many glucose molecules.This slow carbohydrate soluble in water, quickly enters the blood stream, does not cause bloating.Starch is the basis of human carbohydrate intake, asIt is found in many popular foods.
- Fiber.Fiber or "dietary fiber" - a complex mix of value for the proper operation of the human body.Fiber is not digested, has a positive effect on the body: prevents the development of colorectal cancer, diabetes, helps to lower cholesterol through the excretion of bile acids, which produce it, to deal with cardiovascular diseases.Kletchatochnyh long products provide the body with a feeling of saturation, contain silicon, exempting hazardous substances.
There are 2 types of fiber:
- insoluble.It improves the digestive tract, eliminates waste products, helps to slow the absorption of glucose.
- soluble.Lowers cholesterol, helps to slow the absorption of glucose.
It tissue include:
- Cellulose.This is a slow carbohydrate, not carrying the energy value, but it is an important component in the formation of proper intestinal flora.Thanks to pulp production goes better B vitamins
- Glycogen.Glycogen - a slow type of carbohydrate, which is a backup energy storage.Glycogen "preserved" in the liver, while in the body does not fall desired glucose level.Then it split into glucose carbohydrate compounds, increasing sugar level, thereby providing the body with energy.
- Chitin.Chitin - the second type of slow carbohydrate compounds of animal origin.It acts like pulp, but other than its basic properties, reduces the risk of diseases of the cardiovascular system, helps in the prevention of diabetes.
Table of complex carbohydrates and their composition in
foods as sources of complex carbohydrates are: bread from wheat flour, pasta, whole wheat flour, various vegetables andgreens, oatmeal, cereals (except semolina).These include fruits, berries are low in sugar, brown rice, mushrooms, legumes, some dairy products.They should be consumed during the first half of the day - for breakfast or for dinner in the evening to give preference to food protein.Refer to the table to help understand which foods contain complex, useful for the body, carbohydrates.
Products rich in complex carbohydrates
products which are full of complex carbohydrate compounds, is extensive, so fans of diversity will not be difficult to stick to a healthy diet.The following will be considered different types of products in order to maintain energy balance, which is preferable to use, and most useful for the organism as a whole.
Vegetables and greens
vegetables have long been known as an important element of proper diet.Along with pasta, bakery products, fruit, cereals - they constitute the base of the power pyramid.Almost all vegetables contain slow carbohydrate compounds, but the most useful are: cabbage, green onions, leeks, bell peppers, zucchini, green beans, tomatoes.
To save the maximum amount of vitamins, eat vegetables should be raw or polusvarennom state, as they have passed severe heat treatment, lose most beneficial properties.As for the various greenery, it is necessary to include in the diet onion lettuce, leaf lettuce and spinach - they can be added to salads or used separately.
Fruits and berries
Fruit that is useful and necessary to use: berries, kiwi, peaches, papaya, cherries, figs, pomegranates, pears, apples - all in cheeseform.Avoid the following fruits that have a high glycemic index.These include bananas, pineapples, mangoes and watermelons.Good for eating fruit canned in its own juice, freshly squeezed juices, jam without sugar, some dried fruit (eg apricots).
Grains and legumes
As a source of slow-type carbohydrate compounds are excellent wholegrains:
- wholemeal bread
- pasta from whole grains
- oat and barley flakes.
desirable to replace ordinary bread on whole, which contains a large amount of fiber.Legumes, necessary to maintain the balance of carbohydrate - beans, chickpeas, lentils, peas.They contain large amounts of protein, especially important for vegetarians.
Kashi Kashi, prepared using whole-grain cereals, be sure to make a part of the everyday diet.Suit products such as buckwheat, oats, wheat, bulgur.Figure refers to useful carbohydrates, but should be discarded from white rice to brown or brown.Not suitable derivatives from the classic cereals, such as buckwheat or oats, muesli.Porridge is better excluded from the diet.
Dairy products consist almost entirely of simple carbohydrates and contain lactose or "milk sugar" - disaccharide carbohydrate.But do not completely abandon this kind of food, despite the availability of simple carbohydrates.Milk contains many beneficial vitamins, a large amount of calcium and phosphorus, essential for the normal functioning of the body.
Do not think that the slow carbohydrates have only solid food.Drinks can be a source of slow-type carbohydrates.The main ones are the following beverages: 100% freshly squeezed fruit and vegetable juices, tomato juice.Only in these juices greatest concentration of "liquid" slow carbohydrates that are easy to use.
What is the daily requirement for carbohydrates?
daily rate of carbohydrate intake, determines the well-being of a person during the day: 50% of the energy it receives, it is necessary to the impact of carbohydrates.At normal body weight should be consumed 4-5 grams of carbohydrates per day per kilogram of body weight - this applies to employees who are not engaged in heavy physical labor.People involved in sports or heavy physical activity at work, you need to eat 8 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram.
If there is a strong overweight, the daily rate of carbohydrates should be below and have the value of the weight, which is aimed at dieters.Out of 100% carbohydrates consumed by the body per day, 70% should fall on starch, 20% - on simple carbohydrates, and 10% - in dietary fiber.Dietary fiber - it's all kinds of cereals and vegetables.To make up for supply of dietary fiber per day, you should eat about 500 grams of "crude vegetable" (raw).
need for starch can provide flour, cereal dishes, potatoes and legumes.On average, to consume a sufficient amount of starch, you need to eat about 400 grams of the above products.With regard to simple carbohydrates, mono- and di-saccharides even need to use, but it is better to give preference to fruit (bananas, pineapples) than chocolates, because along with the fruit comes the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Those who want to feel good throughout the day, you should divide the meals 5 times: it will provide a steady burst of energy and eliminates the feeling of hunger, which can occur during longerbetween breakfast, lunch and dinner.Small frequent portions will enable a better working digestive system, will contribute to a sense of "tone".
role of complex carbohydrates diet
Complex carbohydrates play an important role during the weight loss process.If the goal is to lose weight, nutritionists usually advise to completely eliminate simple carbohydrates in the diet that contribute to the accumulation of fat tissue and go on a slow carbohydrate compounds.This is especially important when a person is engaged in parallel activities: slow carbohydrates are not allowed to break down and used as energy protein needed to build muscle, the end of glucose and glycogen stores leaving.
complex form such compounds gives the body the ability to constantly feel satiety, thereby avoiding frequent snacks, and as a result - the excess adipose tissue.Simple carbohydrates, on the contrary, are quickly becoming fat deposits, remove hunger only for a short time, which provokes a speedy re eating.Losing weight in any case should not abandon healthy breakfast, which provides strength for the whole day.
Video: What is the carbohydrates and the glycemic index?
Many are not familiar with this notion, as the glycemic index (GI).Watch the video, which gives a clear idea of what is simple and complex types of carbohydrates why complex carbohydrate compounds are useful and what is the glycemic index, which is necessary to know, observing proper nutrition.Be a pro in matters of health!