kidneys - an essential element of the body's activities.This paired organ responsible for the regulation of the process of homeostasis, as part of the urinary system.Elimination of toxins, excess fluids - mostly, but not only in renal function.They are designed to maintain a balance of electrolytes;responsible for the formation of red blood cells;normalization of blood pressure.Therefore, if you suspect any disease - whether it is chronic glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or banal hypothermia, it is necessary to see a specialist for advice.
What is chronic glomerulonephritis?
Glomerulonephritis - a disease for which specific feature is the loss of kidney glomeruli (glomerulus).The kidneys - paired organ, located in humans in the lumbar region in the vicinity of the first two lumbar vertebrae.They resemble the shape of a bean, covered the outside of dense connective tissue and are composed of parenchyma and the special filtration system, accumulation and excretion of urine.
structural unit of the kidney is the nephron.A ball or glomerule - part of the nephron.It represents plexus (in the form of a coil) of blood vessels located in the cavity of the capsule.Through these "loops" made distillation, filtering blood.Its absorption by the liquid portion is separated and forms the primary urine.Then in effect the renal tubules.They conduct
reabsorption, "returning" the body back nutrients, trace elements, salts and glucose, and toxins are removed from the secondary to the renal urine cup and then through the urinary system - from the body.When the healthy kidney glomeruli in the composition of primary urine are no proteins, blood cells.The defeat of the walls of the glomerular loops, breaks the chemical structure of the urine and the kidneys are unable to excrete excess fluids and toxins.
Chronic glomerulonephritis - severe pathology, without proper treatment and proper diagnosis of becoming the cause of chronic renal failure.Intrigue of the disease lies in a very long period of development (from 15 to 17 years), latent forms of expression, often asymptomatic nature of the flow.
Etiology of chronic glomerulonephritis is not fully explored, combining features:
- autoimmune damage - when the glomeruli are damaged his own human body.In this case, there is a "failure" of the program, and the glomeruli are recognized as foreign body and attacks the immune forces - antibodies.
- If renal glomerular damage occurs on a background of acute glomerulonephritis, undertreated last, a disease described as secondary.It combines the features of non-immune renal disease and infectious diseases (pathogenic) allergies.
The trigger mechanism of occurrence of glomerulonephritis in chronic form may be:
- acute glomerulonephritis.
- infectious diseases.
- Septic destruction of the body (blood poisoning).
- reaction to the introduction of the vaccine and sera.
- Hereditary chronic diseases, systemic diseases - lupus, pulmonary-renal syndrome, vasculitis, etc.
- poisoning by toxic substances: mercury vapor, lead, solvents, etc.
- Receiving drugs, alcoholism.
- Radiation sickness.
Classification according to ICD - 10
basic statistics and document classification for health worldwide is the International Classification of Diseases - International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.Kidney diseases are a class of 14 "Diseases of the genitourinary system."Glomerulonephritis allocated in Division N 00 - N 08 "Glomerular disease" with differential division according to morphological characters, chronicle the history of the disease, and hereditary causes of.
classification provides for the separation glomerulonephritis 3 subspecies: acute, chronic, rapidly-progressing.For each type of glomerulonephritis in the directory are:
- pathogenesis (disease course and symptoms).
- General recommendations for treatment with a focus on individual cases.
- Signs and symptoms.
Types and symptoms of glomerulonephritis
Depending on the causes, chronic glomerulonephritis is divided into:
Depending on the clinical picture of disease occurrence, in chronic glomerulonephritis release stage:
- Exacerbations.It is characterized by the manifestation of the symptoms typical of acute glomerulonephritis: an intoxication of an organism, in the presence of blood corpuscles (color "meat slops"), high blood pressure.
- remission.The main symptoms of the disease are absent.Sometimes it may bother pulling weak pain in the lumbar region, and the presence of pathology Chronicle indicates only urine (high protein content).
Common symptoms of glomerulonephritis chronic stage is different: depending on the degree of damage to the glomeruli, the stage of inflammation.However, to some extent characterized by such symptoms:
- swelling, usually in the morning.
- Changing the color of urine, blood impurity.
- High blood pressure, dizziness.
- appears dyspnea.
- weakness, fatigue after the holiday passes.
- Nausea, vomiting, no appetite.
- In some cases - low-grade fever.
- Torments constant thirst.
- Lean / giperobilnye urine output.
- increase in body weight.
characterized erased symptoms or their absence, urinary syndrome.75% of cases of chronic non-communicable (autoimmune) glomerulonephritis account for the latent form.Often, the presence of disease man learns by chance, passing urine on the overall analysis.According to statistics, less than half of patients with the chronic form (43-45%) was transferred without any manifestations of glomerulonephritis Clinic.For erased chronic symptoms characteristic:
- changes in the chemical composition of urine - the appearance of protein (proteinuria);
- weakness, lethargy;
- slight decrease in urine output;
- appearance of a small amount of red blood cells (hematuria) in urine.
fifth of all patients diagnosed with "chronic glomerulonephritis" suffer a form of hypertension.Manifestations of this type of inflammation of the glomeruli are similar to the symptoms of hypertension:
- headaches, nausea;
- reduction of the loss of the ability to distinguish objects;
- high blood pressure, which almost does not get off taking antihypertensive drugs;
- pain in the heart region;
- chronic shortness of breath;
- gradual development of heart failure with a negative outlook - the occurrence of renal failure.
relatively "favorable" option pathology, the effects of which are very rarely becomes uremia.A clear manifestation of symptoms is positive: Worried, patients go to the doctor for timely diagnosis and treatment.chronic forms of glomerulonephritis detected in 5% of patients.Characterized by:
- small protein in the urine;
- increased number of red blood cells (blood) in the composition of the urine;
- changing the density of urine;
- general anemia.
More than a quarter suffering from glomerulonephritis chronic form of disease transmission with simultaneous inflammation of the kidneys (pain syndrome), severe proteinuria (high protein and blood in the urine), intensiveswelling (up to pulmonary edema), a sharp decrease in urine output, thirst.This increased clotting of blood, loss of appetite, skin becomes dry.The general condition of the body is weak, anemia, mouth smells of ammonia, clearly expressed a chronic course with exacerbations and remissions.
nephrotic - hematuric (mixed)
most severe form of the disease.It is characterized by the rapid development of the disease with a very poor prognosis.Patients exhibit a strong swelling, tachycardia, elevated "renal" pressure, urinary syndrome.In 99% of cases leads to acute / chronic renal failure.The high rate of progression of chronic glomerulonephritis mixed form often leads to death.
To avoid possible disease similar in symptoms with glomerulonephritis chronic form, assign the correct competent treatment, the physician-nephrologist diagnoses, including:
- patient Pollhelping to establish an overall picture of (history).
- Appointment analyzes:
- of urinalysis to determine the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, protein;Urine density;
- general and detailed (biochemical) blood test.
- renal ultrasound.
- biopsy and histological examination of affected kidney glomeruli.Gives a precise answer on the morphology of glomerulonephritis, promotes the appointment of adequate treatment chronicles.
- Nefrostsintigrafiyu.This method of research using radionuclide scan allows us to study renal function and renal glomerulus-glomeruli, the functional disorders and their degree.
Features of treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis orientation depend on the degree, the morphology of the disease, the severity of mold flow, intensity of processes of glomerular lesions.The overall picture of the treatment of glomerulonephritis is:
- symptomatic therapy.
- Pathogenetic treatment.Aimed at restoring or maintaining the functionality of the affected kidney glomeruli, improvement of metabolic processes of the body.
- Drug therapy.Lengthy process, which includes:
- use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, indomethacin) to suppress the immune response of the kidneys.
- use of corticosteroids (prednisone), cytotoxic drugs (cyclosporine), suppresses the immune reactions of the body and stops the pathogenic processes in the glomerulus.
- Appointment of anticoagulants (heparin) blood-thinning and preventing the formation of blood clots and blood clots;antiplatelet agents (chimes).
- Antihypertensive drugs for patients suffering from high blood pressure (miopril, enalapril, captopril).
- Diuretics, reducing swelling and removing fluid from the body (furosemide, indapamide).
- Antibacterial agents.Is selected depending on the presence of a bacterial infection outbreak.In terms of the impact can be broad spectrum or narrow focus.
Chronic glomerulonephritis - a pathology, which fundamentally changes the way of life of the patient.Stop the development of the disease makes it a strict diet.Those who wish to preserve the functionality of kidney health, and, at times, and his own life, will have to give up alcohol, smoked, fried foods, soft drinks, condiments and spices.Table number 7 with chronic glomerulonephritis involves:
- limiting the amount of fluid intake;
- salt-free food;
- reduction ratio in sodium foods, increased potassium, calcium, magnesium;
- decrease in consumption of protein foods;
- emphasis on vegetable fats, omega-containing acids, complex carbohydrates.
The course of the disease
chronic glomerulonephritis is very dangerous during pregnancy.The acute period of the disease while waiting for a baby often results in the loss of a child.When chronic glomerulonephritis forms should be developed in conjunction with the consultation of experts a special program for pregnant women, which will support the body mothers, to save the life and health of your baby.
long history of flow, at times clearly expressed symptoms often contribute to the transition from acute to chronic stage.The male part of the population aged 40 to 45 years, subject to the syndrome of primary glomerulonephritis.Second, as a consequence of streptococcal infections, attacks the workable part of the population (20-40 years), children (1-3 weeks after suffering a communicable disease).
Chronic glomerulonephritis - damage the glomeruli, which stretched along the length of the period of one year or more.In 90% of cases if untreated, causes renal failure, hemodialysis daily needs kidney transplantation or organ.Establish the exact cause of the disease is not always possible, however, the majority of patients there is a general decrease in the body's immune system.
Preventive measures are aimed at preventing the development of chronic glomerulonephritis orientation, prevention of the acute stage.Includes:
- Gentle labor regime.
- lack of negative factors of hypothermia, exhaustion.
- Avoiding interaction with toxic substances.
- Maximum immunity strengthening, prevention of infectious and bacterial diseases.
- Moderate physical activity during remission chronic course;bed / polupostelny mode during exacerbation of glomerulonephritis.
- Refusal of vaccination or compliance with individual graphics.
Video: kidney disease - glomerulonephritis
Chronic glomerulonephritis - a disease that affects the young, active people.Asymptomatic, a long process of development of the disease is a threat to not knowing about the diagnosis, a person continues to "destroy" their own body unthinkable in a civilized society, methods of self-communicable diseases, destructive lifestyle, harmful food, the lack of a competent treatment.Learn about the symptoms, methods of treatment and methods of prevention of chronic glomerulonephritis focus, watch our video: