Hypothyroidism thyroid disease

Approximately 1/3 of the population of our planet revealed thyroid disease.Disturbances in the body are virtually no symptoms and often lead to a state of neglect - that they pose a serious danger.One of the most common and progressive thyroid is hypothyroidism.Hypothyroidism - a syndrome that occurs as a result of insufficient production of thyroid hormones.Let us consider the types, stages, causes, the main methods of treatment.

types and stages of disease

How is hypothyroidism, what is it, what are the types?Since disease having autoimmune origin, either born (congenital), or it appears in the course of human life (acquired).According to the degree of hypothyroidism thyroid lesion is divided into primary, secondary.According to the degree of difficulty distinguished: latency, symptomatic complicated.


Distinguish congenital hypothyroidism thyroid acquired.In the first case, the disease manifests itself in a person's birth as a result of thyroid disease, organ damage or

underdevelopment in utero, genetic predisposition.It affects poor nutrition during pregnancy, lack of iodine.Acquired Hypothyroidism thyroid appears and develops in a person's life.The disease is caused by a neck injury, inflammation, vitamin deficiency, and iodine, medication, by the removal of the thyroid gland.

According to the degree of destruction

hypothyroid thyroid dysfunction has a different pathogenesis, depending on the extent of damage.The disease is diagnosed all over the world, but it is almost always detected very late.There are 2 stages of hypothyroidism.They differ in the severity of changes in thyroid structure, the possibility of the body to perform its functions.Primary hypothyroidism is thyroid occurs because of changes in the structure and reduce the weight of the glandular tissue of the thyroid gland.As a result, the body ceases to synthesize hormones TOR T4.Symptoms of primary hypothyroidism is thyroid:

  • swelling of the face, extremities;
  • reduce body temperature;
  • appetite suppression;
  • yellow skin, hair loss;
  • hoarseness;
  • increase in thyroid size;
  • overweight;
  • sore throat, difficulty swallowing.

Secondary hypothyroidism is associated with decreased thyroid operation.The body is anatomically well, but is not able to produce thyroxine.This is due to the loss of function of the pituitary, hypothalamus.Symptoms of thyroid lesions are absent.Signs of secondary hypothyroidism the thyroid gland:

  • body swelling, facial;
  • problems with nasal breathing;
  • sleep problems, memory loss;
  • malfunction of the kidneys;
  • difficulty in swallowing, decreased taste;
  • low body temperature;
  • lag in growth, development in children.


Hypothyroidism thyroid is able to progress.The earlier in life it develops, the more complications cause.Without proper treatment of hypothyroidism thyroid in children breaks down the central nervous system development, delayed physical, mental development.In the working population without adequate therapy formed myxedema.According to the severity of hypothyroidism the thyroid gland is divided into the following types:

  1. latent (subclinical).Symptoms oiled, the thyroid gland is normal in size.Laboratory blood studies show an increased content of TSH and T4 normal amount.
  2. overt hypothyroidism thyroid.Characteristic reduction in thyroid hormones and increased TSH.It is divided into compensated and decompensated.In the first case, the indicators are in the normal range due to the correct and timely reception of tablets.In the second - normal values ​​it is impossible to achieve, even with treatment.
  3. complications.This form of hypothyroidism occurs if the disease is not treated.Characterized complications: cretinism, delays in development (in children), heart failure.


There are many causes of serious thyroid disease, hypothyroidism.If we talk about the primary form of the disease, all the processes leading to the ailment, are located directly in the body.The thyroid gland is either birth defects or reduced volume of functioning tissue.And in the primary and in the secondary form of the cause of hypothyroidism is a thyroid gland is to reduce the level of thyroid hormones in the body.

Primary hypothyroidism

reasons are congenital and acquired.The main ones are:

  • hypoplasia (aplasia) of the thyroid gland at birth;
  • taking certain medicines, treatment with drugs containing radioactive iodine;
  • lack of selenium, iodine;
  • congenital thyroid disease, its inflammation, autoimmune thyroiditis;
  • operation to full (partial) removal of the thyroid gland;
  • complications in the postoperative period;
  • presence of endemic goiter, cancer.


disease occurs due to decreased activity of the pituitary gland.Causes of secondary hypothyroidism:

  • removal of the pituitary gland;
  • trauma, hemorrhage, a tumor of the hypothalamus / pituitary gland inflammation;
  • circulatory disorders in the brain arteries;
  • autoimmune diseases that cause the pituitary lesion;
  • medication affecting the pituitary gland.

Symptoms of the disease and their symptoms

Often the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism thyroid interpreted as clinical manifestations of other pathologies.Patients are observed for a long time, a cardiologist, nutritionist, therapist, psychologist, get incorrect diagnoses and treated unsuccessfully.Symptoms of hypothyroidism thyroid develop imperceptibly, slowly (pictured patients with mild have not seen any changes).For this reason, people are in no hurry to apply to the clinic.


Here are the common signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism thyroid typical adult.The severity depends on the individual characteristics of the organism, shape, type of disease, age and gender.So, the symptoms:

  1. From the nervous system: constant sleepiness, lack of vitality, memory loss, inability to concentrate.
  2. part of the intestine: a tendency to constipation, increased appetite, biliary dyskinesia;
  3. Cardio-vascular system: shortness of breath, a slow heartbeat, high blood pressure (arterial and diastolic), edema in the evenings.
  4. part of the reproductive system: significantly reduced libido.In women, the menstrual cycle is broken, there are problems with the birth of a child, male erectile function is disrupted.
  5. Increased thyroid size (barely noticeable in the initial stage, pronounced in later).
  6. Change voice or no.
  7. Dry skin.
  8. Low body temperature (36,0-36,1).
  9. Muscle cramps.


children differential diagnosis is made in the first 2-3 months after birth.People with hypothyroidism, thyroid children are born with more weight.Characterized by yellowness of the skin, swelling, drowsiness, slow pulse.Some newborns badly delayed umbilical wound.Poor working intestines, lethargy observed.Older children complain of poor memory, lack of energy.It should be wary if the child shows excessive aggression or retardation.

diagnostic methods

diagnosis of hypothyroidism thyroid placed after referral to a specialist endocrinologist.The doctor is required to refer the patient to a blood test to determine the level of TRH, TSH levels of thyroid hormones.Besides blood chemistry conducted to determine the level of cholesterol and other lipids.The size and structure of the thyroid gland are determined by ultrasound.In some cases, further prescribe a biopsy organ, brain MRI, isotopic scintigraphy thyroid.

How to treat hypothyroidism thyroid

forecast is favorable only with timely treatment to the expert and correct diagnosis.For the treatment prescribed hormonal drugs and medicaments containing iodine, homeopathy.Good progress is achieved when medication is combined with diet, folk remedies, sports.When the diagnosis of hypothyroidism symptoms and treatment for women, men in some aspects similar to the symptoms and treatment of goiter.

replacement therapy

of receiving the patient medication to compensate for the lack of hormones.As a rule, prescribed tireotom, levothyroxine, eutiroks, yoditiroks.Substitution therapy in hypothyroidism the thyroid gland is a lifetime.Start with small doses of medication and gradually increase them.First compensate deficiency of hormones in the body, then maintained acceptable dose.The main criterion for this - well-being of the patient.

Medical Diet Meals

hypothyroidism thyroid recommended a balanced, diet, low caloric diet.Doctors strongly advise patients to reduce the amount of fat and carbohydrates in food, to exclude products with a lot of salt.In hypothyroidism, it is desirable to use dishes that stimulate the production of gastric juice, and having a "laxative" properties (they contribute to weight loss).Contraindicated:

  • fatty meat dairy products;
  • products containing soy;
  • pastries;
  • sugar, honey, jam;
  • refined products (rice, sugar, white flour).


  • all berries and fruits;
  • broth, cooked on the bone;
  • greens;
  • fish, seafood;
  • dried fruits;
  • dairy products one day of preparation (yogurt, cottage cheese).

Folk remedies

favorable effect on the thyroid gland has an intake of juices (vegetable), various herbal.They do not replace the basic treatment of hormonal agents, but create favorable conditions for the work of the body, alleviate symptoms of hypothyroidism, increase the effect of medicines.Folk remedies are varied and are not suitable for the treatment of each person.Here are some methods:

  1. Treatment of hypothyroidism cucumber.You must eat at least 1 kilogram of root crops a day.They contain iodine, which is well absorbed by the body.Reviews and impressions of this "therapy" only positive.
  2. Treatment of hypothyroidism herbs.One of the many options: to take an equal number of birch buds, St. John's wort, elecampane root, mountain ash berries.All components of the brew 1 liter of boiled water, a little hold on low heat and infuse polusutki.The resulting mixture of herbs to drink three times a day before meals.

Possible complications and consequences of the disease

Untreated hypothyroidism thyroid necessarily having consequences and complications.Reduced mental ability, there are disruptions in the heart, there is a constant low blood pressure, immune system suffers.Infection and chronic disease on the background of hypothyroidism thyroid lasts longer than usual.If the amount of thyroid hormone to fall to a critical level, there gipotireodnaya coma.


disease to prevent hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is important every year to visit an endocrinologist and not leave even the slightest changes in the body without attention.It is necessary to temper the organism, to adhere to proper nutrition, taking iodine-containing preparations, if necessary.It is important to improve the immune system, avoid stressful situations that may be dangerous to the body.