Hypodynamy, hobby computers, sedentary office work sometimes causes severe injuries.Insufficient load on the musculoskeletal system over time, causes atrophy of muscles, ligaments and joints.Without constant exercise, the body can react injury.Dislocation ankle - one of the most common injuries of the musculoskeletal system, which with the right care and treatment is not threatening complications.
What is a dislocation of the ankle and his degree with photos
fulfilling the basic function of the whole body support while walking, the ankle - a complex mechanism that connects the foot and the shin bone.Tibia using the articular surface of the expanding end on both sides of the talus cover the foot.Last joint has three sections: the upper tibia is adjacent, and the right and left movable connected to the ankles.
tendons from the muscles to the bones transmit impulses needed for the effort when driving.Ligaments connect bones to each other, firmly holding together.They help to maintain body weight,
wrong move, bump or drop limbs can cause injury.In medicine, this damage is called a dislocation of the ankle joint.Dislocation - this offset surfaces nadtarannogo joint relative to each other.Their unnatural position, tear or complete rupture of ligaments, the capsule of the ankle - signs of an injury received.
offset relative to the foot of the talus in the heel, the navicular joints called subtalar dislocation.Depending on where the foot is tucked at the time of injury - outside or inside - are distinguished:
- pronation dislocation.This "falling" into the foot, resulting in an injury tibial ankle ligaments.
- Supinatsionnaya injury.This dislocation is accompanied by disorders of the fibular ligament.
reasons for dislocation of the ankle are often:
- Anatomically wrong shoes.
- Reinforced exercise, exercise.
- blows in the ankle area.
- Unsuccessful jumping from a height without shock absorbers.
physiological characteristics of an organism can also cause dislocation of the ankle:
- High lift foot.
- Undeveloped peroneal muscles and ligaments.
- incorrect position of the foot while walking (valgus or varus).
- Have not finished the cure injuries.
For these reasons must be added a number of diseases that provoke a dislocated ankle:
- arthritis, arthritis of the lower limbs;
- tuberculosis of bones;
degree of dislocation depends on how tight ligament "hold" ankle.The nature of damage caused by traumatic event affects the degree of damage to the joints, ligaments, muscles and bones of the lower leg:
- I degree.Characterized by a light tear of individual fibers.
- II degree.There is a partial rupture of ligaments.Ankle stability is normal.
- III degree.Full impulse ankle ligaments, the lack of normal functionality.
Based on the causes, all the dislocations are divided into:
- purchased, includingfamiliar (appearing regularly on the background of the previous injury of the ankle).
Sprain with a break of individual fibers
This degree of ankle damage is characterized by a small number of micro- breaks connective tissue fibers.Preserving motor function due to the integrity of the bunch, but with such a dislocation marked the formation of swelling in the ankle area, palpation - pain when walking there is a sensation of discomfort.
muscle tear ankle
second degree dislocation is characterized by partial rupture of the ankle ligaments.Swelling pronounced, it covers a large part of the upper surface of the foot.There is severe pain when trying to move the foot, walking, resting.In place of the dislocation of the blood accumulates, forming a hematoma.The mobility of the ankle joint is, however, it is difficult.
Complete dislocation of joints and ligaments
break a complete break, a shift ligament surfaces of the ankle, the pain is very sharp.The foot becomes immobilized, and walking, and any movement of the injured limb, impossible.Blood circulation: subcutaneous hemorrhage causes a large hematoma and swelling extends to the entire foot, including the sole and ankle.
partial displacement of the articular surfaces of the ankle without a complete rupture of ligaments is called a subluxation.Often occurs when the connective tissue gap between the small and the tibia.It is typical for people who are overweight.Repeated subluxations sometimes lead to the destruction of the ankle joint is flexible body that causes osteoarthritis.
Dislocation ankle - classification according to ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision is a document by which ensured uniform practice approaches, healing techniques, comparability of data on an international scale.Revised every ten years at the session of the WHO.To unify use four-digit alphanumeric codification.
dislocation, subluxation, tears ankle ligaments belong to a class of diseases XIX «Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes" section S, which includes encoding a particular part of the body injuries.Block S 90-S 99 is dedicated to the area of injury, the foot and ankle.In medical practice, the RF ICD-10 is important: is used in a forensic psychiatric examinations.
main symptoms and signs
Symptoms damaged ligaments during dislocation, fracture or injury of the ankle joint is similar.To exclude fracture, refer to the emergency room for diagnosis.Complex dislocation with displacement of joint surfaces, ligament rupture in the next 2 hours after the injury requires immediate intervention specialist to reposition the ankle.
Symptoms of ankle injuries:
- presence of pain.Tear ligaments I or II, habitual dislocation cause more discomfort while open dislocation, followed by a broken ankle, indicate acute severe pain even at rest.Palpation in this case is very painful, unpleasant feelings are on the rise.
- Education leg edema and swelling in the area of the ankle and foot.Progressing in the next 24 hours from the moment of dislocation.The higher the degree of severity of the ankle injury, the greater the area of the foot, lower leg, ankle swells.
- joint stiffness.The deterioration / failure of motor function of the ankle: when trying to move in the event of a stop does not listen to a complete rupture of the ankle ligaments, frozen in an anomalous position.
- Discomfort / inability to stand on the leg.If dislocation refers to the third degree, attempts to even move my foot fall through.
- By moving surfaces ankle hear the typical click or crackle.
- Increase local and sometimes general temperature.
How to treat a dislocated ankle and the ankle - first aid
To minimize the effects of the ankle injury, you need to perform certain actions on rendering first aid in dislocation:
- Release injured leg from socks, narrow shoe in order to normalizeblood circulation and reduce swelling.Inspect ankle and places of dislocation.If the victim is shod in shoes or boots, take off your shoes, doctors do not recommend to prevent deterioration of the ankle joint.In this case, immediately contact the emergency room.
- Provide limb immobility in the state where it is located after the dislocation.Give an elevated position by placing a leg pillow, cushion or folded towel.
- bandage: ordinary, elastic bandage, even a scarf will be a perfect means to fix the ankle joint.
- order to reduce swelling and pain apply ice.
- Take painkillers.Then, be sure to consult your doctor to determine the extent of damage after ankle dislocation.
faster and professionally rendered first aid for dislocation, the less time will be required for rehabilitation and restoration of the ankle functionality.The answer to the question: "How many runs dislocated ankle" depends on the competent treatment;physiological characteristics of an organism;effective exercise of physiotherapy:
- microinjuries When connecting fibers, subluxation or "habitual dislocation" 5-7 days swelling decreases.On day 10 is reduced ankle mobility, release pain when walking.Wearing elastic bandage fixation is not necessarily less than two weeks after the dislocation.For complete recovery in this case will require 20-30 days.
- After reposition the ankle ligament rupture without a doctor wearing a special plaster will take at least 15 days.Then appointed special exercises to restore joint function for a period of 10-15 days.It recommended wearing elastic bandages or splints.Rehabilitation takes between four to six weeks.
- What passes dislocation of the ankle with a complete rupture of ligaments and joint surfaces offset?After surgery in severe cases, the patient is released on the 5-7 day.The leg is in a cast until bone fusion, is not less than 20 days.The reducing treatment then takes 40 to 60 days.
Video: the imposition of proper dressings
to leg remained stationary after the dislocation, it is necessary to impose on the ankle fixing bandage.You will need an elastic bandage.The dressing should not be clamped bloodstream.The procedure begins with wrapping the upper part of the tibia, 10-15 centimeters above the ankle joint.Used crossing technique, and the bandage is applied to the entire surface of the foot and ankle to the phalanges in the circuit shown in the photo above.Consider the process and understand the mechanism of action, you can watch our video:
In the first minutes after the dislocation attach to the place of ice injury.Home cryotherapy helps relieve swelling and numbness.Cold treatment is effective in the first two days from the moment of dislocation.Duration of treatment should not exceed 15 minutes per session to avoid frostbite tissues.Avoid direct contact of the skin of the ankle joint and ice, use a cotton towel.
To reduce pain and inflammation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pill take the drug (NSAID) in a dosage corresponding to your weight, age:
- «Analgin", "Ketanov", "Pentalgin" - the powerful anesthetic that will remove the pain;
- «Ibuprofen", "Nise", "Nimesulide" - help relieve swelling, inflammation will be removed;
- «Troxevasin" - accelerate healing of bruises.
trip to the emergency room to reposition the joint
Regardless of the degree of swelling and pain, any damage to the ankle joint require orthopedic consultation to establish an accurate diagnosis.Describe in detail the medical circumstances in which you are injured.Then the doctor will examine and palpation of the injury.To ensure the integrity of bones, a specialist in the direct X-ray or MRI.
offset articular surfaces requires reposition manualnym or surgically.By traction on the legs specialist orthopedic reduce a ankle.If dislocation complicated fracture, hospitalization is required.The surgeon makes an incision fracture site, reduce a joint, bone and fixes titanium plates and screws.This is done:
- local anesthesia (partial offset): the blockade "Novocaine," "Lidocaine";
- general anesthesia.
ankle Treatment and recovery at home
If the ankle injury is not dangerous, the doctor allowed to be treated at home, the recovery technique is:
- Treatment of cold 2-3 days.
- elastic pressure bandage.
- NSAID first 5 days after the dislocation.
- use special ointments.
- Massage ankle.
- The use of traditional medicine.
ointments to relieve swelling
reduce swelling, help to remove the hematoma topical preparations - ointments.At the beginning of the treatment of the ankle is better to use gels: they are absorbed faster and in a week to move to the cream:
- «Bystrumgel", "Fastum Gel" displays at first.The main active component - ketoprofen.Refers to NSAIDs, so long-term use have side effects and contraindications.After consultation with a doctor is better to switch to natural products similar spectrum:
- «Comfrey Dr. Tice";
- «Badyaga Forte gel".
- «Heparin" - an effective drug for the treatment of bruises ankle.Heparin ointment has protivotrombichesky effect;dilates blood vessels, improving blood flow;anaesthetizes place of dislocation.Duration of treatment - 15 days.You can replace the ointment on the basis of troxerutin or dexpanthenol:
- Warming drugs "Efkamon", "Finalgon", "Apizatron" are used, starting from the second week after the dislocation.Improve the metabolism of connective tissue of the ankle joint, contribute to the rapid restoration of ligaments.
- We should also highlight the homeopathic remedy "Arnica".Ideal for the treatment of ankle.It has a regenerative, restorative, sedative effect.
Massage Massage Therapy Ankle - one of the recovery methods.Easy longitudinal, circular strokes ankle area should be neat.It takes about 2-3 minutes.Then a few minutes rub ribs palm place of dislocation, performing lateral movements.Proceed to spiral and longitudinal Rubbing fingertips for a minute on each ankle.At the end of the massage, pay attention to the arch, kneading and stroking it.Repeat 3 times complex.Details of the implementation of self-massage you can learn by watching the video:
warm baths and compresses
Effective speedy recovery means the ankle are:
- Rub 2 medium-sized potatoes on a fine grater.Get gruel overlaid place of dislocation.Cover the cotton cloth, leave overnight.
- Warming.Saturate a bandage medical alcohol or vodka.Wrap around ankle, wrap in cellophane, then a woolen scarf.
- Herbal.Boil 3 tbsp.l.tansy flowers 200 ml of water.Leave to infuse for 1 hour.Soak infusion of bandage, apply to the site of injury and leave for 2 hours.Good teas based on calendula, chamomile, mother and stepmother, celandine.The alternation of warm (45⁰S) and cold compresses will reduce the pain.
- cider vinegar, dilute with water (ratio 1: 2).Damp cloth to apply the place of dislocation of 10 minutes.
- Buds of birch, St. John's wort, mother and stepmother (1 tbsp) brew in 1 liter of water.Cool to 50⁰S.Take such bath every day before going to bed 5-7 days.
- Paraffin - heated ligaments, improving blood circulation and speeding up regeneration.
Complications dislocation of the foot
Chronic dislocation - the most common complication of improper treatment of the ankle joint.