Trigeminal nerve

Want to know what the trigeminal nerve?This is the fifth pair of cranial nerves, which is considered mixed, because at the same time contains sensory and motor fibers.The motor of the branch responsible for important functions - swallowing, biting and chewing.In addition, the trigeminal nerve (nervus trigeminus) include fibers that are responsible for ensuring tissue glands facial nerve cells.

anatomy of the trigeminal nerve in the human

nerve originates from the trunk of the front of the pons, located next to the middle legs of the cerebellum.It is formed from two roots - large and small sensory motor.Both the root from the bottom to the top of the space directed the temporal bone.The motor root with sentient third branch goes through the foramen ovale and more connected with it.In the depression at the top of the pyramid is the semilunar bone site.From it come the three major sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve.Topography nervus trigeminus is as follows:

  1. mandibular branch;
  2. ophthalmic branch;
  3. node of the trigeminal nerve;
  4. maxillary branch.

With these branches from the facial skin cover, oral mucosa, eyelids and nose are transmitted nerve impulses.Structure semilunar human host includes the same cells that are in the spinal sites.Due to the location of its interior causes the connection to the carotid artery.At the exit of the node, each branch (ophthalmic, Upper and mandibular) is protected by the dura mater.

Where is

total number of nuclei of the trigeminal nerve is four (2 sensory and motor).Three of them are located at the rear of the brain, and one is secondary.Two motor branches to form the spine: beside him sensory fibers are included in the medulla.This forms a sensitive part of the nervus trigeminus.Where is the trigeminal nerve in humans?Motor and sensory roots create a trunk that penetrates under the hard tissue of the middle cranial fossa.He falls into the depression, located at the top of the pyramid of the temporal bone.

Symptoms of trigeminal nerve lesions

pain caused by damage to the trigeminal nerve - one of the most painful for the person.As a rule, it hurts the lower front part of the jaw, and, therefore, some may feel that the pain is localized in the teeth.Sometimes pain develops over the eyes and around the nose.When a person experiences the pain of neuralgia, which can be compared to electric shock.This is due to irritation of the trigeminal nerve, branches of which diverge in the cheeks, forehead and jaw.Diagnosis of the disease may indicate a type of lesion nervus trigeminus: neuralgia, herpes or pinched.


Inflammation occurs as a rule, because of the contact with the vein or artery nervus trigeminus near the base of the skull.Trigeminal neuralgia may also be a consequence of compression of nerve tumor that is guaranteed to lead to deformation and destruction of the myelin nerve sheath.Often the appearance of neuralgia in young people is associated with the development of multiple sclerosis.Symptoms of disease are:

  • ¬ęshooting" pain in the face;
  • increase or decrease the sensitivity of the person;
  • twinges after chewing begins, touching the face or mucous membranes of the mouth, facial movements;
  • in extreme cases, there is paresis (incomplete paralysis of facial muscles);
  • usually pain manifested on the one hand a person (regardless of the affected part of the nerve).


If neuralgia develops in the nerve pinch, the pain attacks occur suddenly and last from 2-3 seconds up to several hours.Provokes disease contraction of facial muscles, or exposure to cold.A common cause of neuropathy is transferred plastic surgery or injuries that were caused by dentures.For this reason, jamming nervus trigeminus confused with dental pain, provoke damage if its second and third branches of the nerve.The symptoms of this disease are considered:

  • intense pain in the lower jaw;
  • pain above the eye and nose region.


trigeminal neuropathy can occur not only because of mechanical damage, but also because of the development of herpes.The disease develops due to the defeat of nervus trigeminus particular virus - varicella-zoster (zoster, shingles).He is able to hit the skin and mucous membranes of the human body, giving the central nervous system complications.Symptoms of neuralgia on eelgrass background are considered:

  • herpes rash on the face, neck or ear;
  • skin has a reddish color, noticeable characteristic swelling;
  • bubbles are formed on the face of clear and later - turbid fluid;
  • for postherpetic drying soil condition characterized by sores that heal for 8-10 days.

How to treat trigeminal nerve in the face

Treatment of inflammation of the trigeminal nerve is aimed primarily at reducing pain.There are several methods of treatment of neuralgia, important among which are given to the reception of medicines.In addition, to facilitate the patient's condition to help physiotherapy (dynamic currents ultraforez, etc.) and traditional medicines.How to treat inflammation of the trigeminal nerve?


tablets aimed at the cessation of pain attacks.When the desired effect is achieved, the dosage is reduced to a minimum and the therapy continues for a long time.The most used drugs:

  • basis neuralgia treatment is drugs of AEDs (protipoepilepticheskie);
  • used anticonvulsants, antispasmodics;
  • prescribe vitamin, anti-depressants;
  • to be highly effective in the treatment of inflammation of the trigeminal nerve proved "Finlepsin";
  • doctors specializing in neurology, appoint "Baclofen", "lamotrigine".

folk remedies

For a good result, any recipes combine with the classic treatment.Apply:

  1. Treating Trigeminal fir oil.Moisten a cotton pad and rub on the air in the place where the pain is manifested most strongly at least 5 times a day.The skin will redden and swell slightly - this is normal.After 4 days the pain will stop.
  2. Egg.How to treat trigeminal nerve in the home?Boil 1 hard boiled egg, cut it warm for 2 half and attach to the inside of the affected area.When the egg cools, the pain must be blunt.
  3. Help decoction of herbs.Crush marshmallow root and chamomile, mix 4 teaspoonsBoil herbs and 400 ml of water.Leave the decoction to infuse overnight.On the morning of the infusion type in your mouth and hold for 5 minutes.Also, please compresses using broth twice a day by applying them to the affected area.


This is one of the most effective therapies neuralgia, which is proven by numerous studies.The essence of the blockade is injected, an analgesic (usually it ledokain) in place of the output of the inflamed nerve branches.Doctors often use Diprosanom blockade, but it is used mainly in the case of joint pain.First palpable trigger points are determined by the damaged nerve branches.Then this place is introduced the solution, making 2 injection: intradermal and to the bone.

Microvascular decompression

If cure neuritis of the trigeminal nerve by a drug fails, the patient, surgical intervention.In the absence of other options the doctor prescribes surgery to remove a nerve with a laser.Its danger lies in the potential for side effects, including changes in facial expressions.The main reason for neuralgia is a nerve root by displacement vessels.The aim of the operation - to find a vein or artery and separate it from the nerve by a piece of muscle or a Teflon tube.The procedure can take place under local or general anesthesia.

Video: Symptoms and Treatment of inflammation of the trigeminal nerve

symptoms of neurological disease (reduction of facial muscles, seizures, pain) are stopped by analgesics, anticonvulsants and sedatives.Typically, doctors prescribe the blockade - the introduction of substances directly in the place of nerve inflammation.Medication is allowed only after their appointment the doctor and under his supervision, as many drugs lose their effectiveness over time and require periodic dosage adjustment.After watching the video, you'll learn about the treatment of the disease in more detail.

Reviews of treating trigeminal

Zarina, 33 years : My mother suffered from neuralgia for more than 4 years, suffering great pain.Last year, we decided to abandon the endless course of medicines for the benefit of the operation.We were very lucky with the surgeon, nerve removal was successful and took about 3.5 hours.At the moment, my mother feels great.

Mikhail, 46 years : My diagnosis - neurosis.In the background neuralgia developed, which began with pain in the eye, then it spreads to the jaw, and plumb.Lying in the hospital, constantly taking prescribed antibiotics, pricked Milgamma.In time, it became better and I was discharged.Now the pain came again, I think to do the operation.

Elena, 27 years : Last winter, I managed to chill ear, which resulted in a trigeminal nerve.If you look at my photos from that period, it is noticeable that the jaw was very swollen.Initially treated pills when the expected result did not wait, the doctors did a blockade.The recovery was fast, and now I feel great.