Apple - one of the most popular fruit trees in modern gardeners.It not only pleases the hosts fragrant, beautiful flowers in the spring, but also gives a rich harvest in the fall.Like any other plants, apple tree from time to time exposed to different diseases, the main symptom of which is the shrinkage and deformation of leaves.
Why apple twist and change the color of the leaves: the reasons
There are many diseases that can strike the apple tree, destroying its fruit, or even the tree itself.Therefore, it is important to quickly detect and begin treatment of apple trees.To determine the nature of the disease, you need to be aware of possible illnesses and their characteristic symptoms.Each disease manifests itself in different ways, so if you are found in the bark, leaves, or fruits of any changes, check the information provided below to diagnose illness and treat apple.
If the leaves on the apple twist and turn red - it indicates infection krasnogallovoy tree aphids.
When serious damage by pests, the leaves are covered by the Gauls, and gradually zasyhaya litter.Peering closer, it is not difficult to notice the apple aphid colonies - the insect has a gray color and the season can give up to 4 generations.Non-migrating of the pest has lived in a tree, laying eggs under bark scales, and in the spring they turn into larvae that settle on the underside of leaves.Krasnogallovaya aphids harm not only the green part, but also the fruits of apple, on them you can see the red spots.
If a young apple tree leaves curl - it says about the lack of minerals.Potassium deficiency is usually characterized by a change in leaf color from green to brown.This phenomenon is often seen in the planted trees in the sandy soil.In addition, the lack of potassium affects premature loss of leaves in autumn, the tops become dry.To solve this problem, it is necessary to feed a plant fertilizer potash.
If the tree stops growing, then it is not enough nitrogen.Phosphorus deficiency affects the reproductive processes of apple - fruiting and flowering.In spring, this tree for a long time do not appear buds, young shoots do not sprout.Apple, which lacks phosphorus, long flowering, often it is premature yellowing leaves fall off.Trees with a deficiency of phosphorus in the branches of a very weak growth.
Powdery mildew - a dangerous and long-known enemy of all gardeners.The disease affects the branches, bark, buds, leaves, forming a whitish apple loose plaque, which gradually changes color to brown.Leaves of infected plants wither and fall off, the young seedlings do not grow over time apple tree ceases to bear fruit and die.Powdery mildew is able to get away to resume their destructive work in hibernation in the spring.
Other pests or diseases can cause curling of leaves, appearance of dark spots on them, drying up the green parts of the plant.The most dangerous among them is a scab.This illness affects the whole tree from the shoots and flowers, to fruit and leaves.The first degree of the disease is characterized by damage to the leaves - they are covered with gray spots with light green patina.A short time later these spots increases, brown or blackened and the leaves fall.
the second stage, scab affects plant shoots - they are formed cracks, and then begins to exfoliate bark.Soon, this bud dies.The fruits of diseased apple trees are one-sided, on the surface is not hard to see dark spots with a touch of gray.In addition, the fruits of a detectable spots hardened tissue.
Lack of moisture
Premature wilting leaves on apple trees is often a consequence of the drought, which comes in June or mid-summer.If the branches and bark of the plant looks healthy, and watering is carried out in normal mode, then the cause of leaf roll may be the result of natural disturbances water exchange apple (this happens when, after a frosty winter comes early warm spring) or the result of blasting moles.Correct the situation in this case, you can not, but do not rush to get rid of the tree - it can recover itself to next year.
What to do to defeat the disease of apple and pests
Various diseases, beetles, caterpillars, aphids, fungus and other parasites cause serious damage to the apple tree.They significantly reduce the yield, spoil the appearance of the fruit, the general condition of the tree, its hardiness.The fight against garden pests and diseases has specific characteristics, which are known not all gardeners.The process plant to cure it?
tree insecticide treatments against pests
If apple twisted leaves what should be done?Treatment of fruit trees with insecticides is carried out in early spring before the buds, at a temperature of 5 degrees Celsius.Solution of copper sulfate or nitrafena sprayed the entire tree and tree trunks underneath it - it is necessary to cut off sleeping in it insect larvae.As soon begin to blossom buds, choose one of the connecting agents and process them to an apple tree from insects or scab.The most common means against pests living on apples, are:
- Malathion - a drug that is used in vegetative time to consume apple leaf-eating insects (mites, leaf rollers, moth, and others.).Do not use Malathion during pollination, since it has an impact on bees.The bag preparations are diluted in 6-8 liters of water, gradually introducing powder and stirring the solution.Plants are sprayed with a freshly prepared emulsion so that the leaves were covered by it evenly.It is better to choose a dry, calm weather for the procedure.
- Fufanon designed to combat weevils, cherry fly, sawflies, leaf roller and other pests.Dilute the solution with the calculation should be that needed per tree from 2 to 5 liters of chemicals.Spray the plant is better in the evening or in the morning, moderately abundant wetting the leaves (the solution should not run on them).The protective effect of the drug lasts for a few days after the spraying of apple trees.
- Pirimiks used for spraying trees to destruction of leaf-eating and sucking insects as a sucker, aphids, codling moth, Winter Moth.To prepare the solution should connect Pirimiksa 10-15 ml with 10 liters of water.
- Nitrafen used against aphids, scab, sucker, spot, etc.Per tree must be from 1 to 3 liters of solution.It is not necessary to process separately Nitrafenom ground under the apple tree, enough for the amount of a chemical that falls to the ground when spraying the leaves and stem.
Bordeaux blend from scab
Measures to combat scab and other common apple tree diseases include spraying plants nitrofen or copper sulfate.This procedure should be performed prior to bud in early spring.At the same time you can carry out sprayings bordskoy with a 1% concentration.How to cook it properly?Mix in a non-metallic container the following ingredients:
- 100 grams of copper sulfate dissolved in 5 liters of hot water.
- 100 grams of lime dissolved in 5 liters of water.
Slowly pour vitriol solution in the liquid lime, stir and strain the finished bordskuyu mixture.The treatment of apple it should begin in the spring.The first procedure carried out before bud break, the second time a tree spray after flowering.Hom can use the drug (in proportions of 10 l of water per 40 g), or being sulfur kalloidnuyu (10 liters of water / g of substance 80) for re-treatment.
Good nutrition apple ensure her health and pest and disease resistance, therefore, fertilizer - one of the most important aspects of proper farming techniques.During the first year of life to escape additional makeup mineral fertilizer is not needed, and enough of those that you saturate the soil before planting the tree.All organic matter and phosphates are beginning to make the second year of life of the plant, fertilize their apple trees during digging around-trunk circle, laying to a depth of 12-15 centimeters.
After 3 years the tree of life, when its roots go deeper, fertilizers are applied to the prepared hole 3-4 cm deep and 50, located at a distance of half a meter from the tree trunk.Two thirds of the nitrogen fertilizer used during the budding and the rest - after flowering plants.Fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate is used, urea, humus.It is better to pay in installments in liquid form in the apple tree trunks zone.Driving dressings may look something like this:
- first fertilizer in the period between the beginning of bud blossoming and blooming.
- second - when the ovary is about the size of a walnut.
- third - when they start to grow shoots.
- fourth - in the period of leaf fall.
Biennial apple tree needs a feeding organic, for the year it absorbs from 10 to 15 kg of fertilizer, and its portion is made up of 70 g of ammonium nitrate, 200 g superphosphate and 70-80 g of potassium sulfate.The plant consumes 3-4 years more than 5 kg of organic matter (140 g of potassium nitrate, 150 g, 250 g of superphosphate).Every year the number of apple trees consumed mineral fertilizers increased.
Spraying fungicides on powdery mildew
fight against mildew begins when the tree leaves first appear.During this period, the apple sprayed with 1% bordskoy mixture is treated ash (buried under a tree 300 g substance) or preparations Topaz, the enemy at the rate of 10 liters of water per 2 ml of the chemical.After completion of flowering tree is processed or Homom oxychloride (40 g per 10 liters of water).Last, the third processing is performed by 1% bordskoy mixture or solution of copper sulfate with 20 g of liquid soap.
Video: caring for apple trees for the prevention of leaf roll
The treatment for the prevention of occurrence of diseases of apple trees is carried out in early spring and late fall (after the harvest).The first treatment is carried out to destroy pests, wintered in the tree, and to protect plants from fungi.Fall prevention is carried out for the extermination of insects that hide in the cracks of the barrel for the winter and to prevent the occurrence of various diseases.