statistics sudden deaths disappointing: the number of people exposed to this risk increases with each passing year.The reason for that - heart failure that develops against the backdrop of ischemia.Acute coronary insufficiency - what it is in terms of Cardiology, what is the origin of the term, particularly disease?Learn how the disease is treated, if I can prevent its occurrence and development?
What is acute coronary insufficiency
Heart need to "breath" (oxygen supply) and power (providing micronutrients).This function is performed by the vessels that carry blood to the body delivers everything you need to complete the work.These arteries are located around the heart muscle in the form of a crown (crown), so they are called coronary or coronary.If the blood flow is weakened due to external or internal narrowing of blood vessels, the heart lacks nutrition and oxygen.This state of medicine is called coronary artery disease.
If disruption is slow arteries, heart failure becomes chronic.Developing
In most cases, coronary insufficiency accompanied by coronary artery disease.Often it develops on the background of such ailments like:
- heart defects;
- injury, cerebral edema;
- bacterial endocarditis;
- syphilitic aortitis, etc.
pathology forms and their symptoms
duration of attacks, the severity of their conditions of occurrence -. The factors that determine the classification of the disease in the mild, moderate, severe.The extent of vascular lesions (spasms force, their "debris" blood clots (thrombi), atherosclerotic plaque) - another reason affecting the formal separation of acute coronary insufficiency.
Mild coronary insufficiency occurs as a result of reversible disorders of blood circulation in active emotional or physical stress.The person feels a slight pain, sudden short-term "interception" of breathing, but capacity in these moments is not disturbed.The attack lasts from a few seconds up to two minutes, quickly docked.Often, the patient did not attach importance to this manifestation of heart failure, as the attack of little concern, it passes without medical assistance.
moderately severe attacks occur in normal, but prolonged stress, for example, when a person walks or long uphill (stairs).Not ruled out failure during strong emotional shock, feelings, frustration.When there is an average severity of coronary insufficiency syndrome, there is a pressing pain in the left side of the chest, rapidly deteriorating state of health, reduced working capacity.Attack of coronary heart failure lasts about ten minutes, removed only the high speed reception of nitroglycerine.
disease Koronarogennaya pain that occurs when a severe attack, does not pass without medical intervention.It is so strong that the person covers the fear of death, he feels extra excitement that only worsens his condition.Heavy attack lasts from ten minutes to half an hour, leading to heart attack and death.validol nitroglycerin tablets or help to a health care professional, but the attack is not cropped.In this situation, you need parenteral administration of analgesics and neuroleptic drugs.
normal heart function is not possible without adequate nutrition and sufficient oxygen.Acute coronary insufficiency provokes violation of blood flow in the coronary vessels, their blockage, which leads to:
- koronaroskleroza.Detachment from the vessel wall cholesterol plaques.As a result, normal blood flow is simply blocked this "obstacle".
- vein thrombosis.When this disease caught in a coronary vessel blood clot closes the gap.
- spasm of coronary vessels.Causes increased release of catecholamines by the adrenal glands under the action of nicotine, alcohol and stress.
- vascular injury.As a result of impaired blood flow system.
- inflammation of the vascular walls.It leads to deformation of the coronary arteries, luminal narrowing, disruption of normal blood flow.
- tumors.Under their influence the compression of the coronary vessels occurs mechanically.There may result in cramps intoxication.
- Atherosclerosis.It leads to the development of koronaroskleroza - the formation of plaques in the coronary arteries.
- poisoning.For example, caught in the organism carbon monoxide compound forms resistant to hemoglobin, erythrocytes which deprives oxygen carrying capability.
Emergency care in a fit patient
heartache that occurs when coronary insufficiency, can not be tolerated, and it is necessary to stop the attack immediately.To do this, be sure to restore normal blood flow to the heart.When there is an acute coronary syndrome, acute care to the intervention of doctors is to reduce the (termination), exercise and medication:
- Feeling the pain should stop all active steps immediately: the intensity of the heart muscle is reduced in the quiescent state, thus reducingand the heart's need for oxygen.Already due to this decrease pain and coronary blood supply partially restored.
- simultaneously with the cessation of active operations the patient should take the medication immediately applicable: validol nitroglycerin.These funds are the only emergency first aid for a heart attack.
person with an attack of coronary insufficiency is necessary to give first aid: to bed, under the tongue to give a tablet (0.0005 g) nitroglycerin.Alternative - 3 drops of an alcohol solution (1%) of the drug on sugar cube.If not, he or nitroglycerin is contraindicated (eg, glaucoma), it is replaced validol, which has a more mild vasodilator effect.To the feet of the core is necessary to apply a heating pad, make possible oxygen inhalation.Immediately call an ambulance.
Methods of treatment of acute coronary insufficiency
Treatment of this disease should be started as early as possible, only if the outcome is favorable, or possible heart attack, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and death.Coronary heart disease does not pass by itself.Drug therapy is held stationary for a long time, has a lot of nuances:
- Fighting factors for coronary heart disease risk include diet, elimination of overeating, smoking, drinking, good alternation of rest with activity, normalization of weight.
- Drug treatment is prophylactic use of antianginal and anti-arrhythmic drugs, medication, dilates blood vessels (koronarolitikov), anticoagulants, lipid-lowering and anabolic agents.
Surgery and endovascular treatment is aimed at restoring normal blood flow in the coronary arteries:
- coronary bypass surgery - restoration of blood flow using special grafts to bypass the narrowed places on vessels;
- stenting - installation of carcasses in the coronary vessels;
- angioplasty - opening of the affected arteries special catheter;
- direct coronary atherectomy - a decrease in the size of atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels;
- rotational ablation (rotablyatsiya) - mechanical cleaning special drill ships.
The dangerous disease: possible complications and consequences
Acute coronary insufficiency as the cause of death - a common phenomenon.Coronary heart disease is often asymptomatic, the person does not know about heart disease, do not pay attention to light attacks.As a result, the disease progresses, leading to complications without treatment, which often occurs a sudden coronary death.In addition to this most severe consequences, the disease leads to the following complications:
- arrhythmias of all types;
- changes in the anatomy of the heart, myocardial infarction;
- inflammation of the pericardium - pericarditis;
- aortic aneurysm;
- rupture of the heart wall.
Coronary heart disease - disease that is easier to prevent than to cure.Prevent its occurrence and development helps a number of preventive measures:
- regular physical education classes.Hiking, swimming, with a gradual, mild increase in load, jogging.
- balanced diet with a small amount of animal fats.
- Quitting smoking and alcohol.
- exception of psycho-emotional (stress) loads.
- Control of blood pressure.
- Maintaining a normal weight.
- control the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
Video about the treatment of acute coronary syndrome
Want to learn about the statistics of mortality from acute heart failure and severe consequences of this widespread disease?Watch the video, which are impressive figures and convincing arguments to the prevention of coronary insufficiency.You know what a severe coronary heart disease, which are modern methods of treatment, in what ways doctors reduced coronary blood flow, and return patients back to life.